Brief Description about Renewable Energy - American Power and Gas

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Presentation Description

Renewable Energy,also known as future energy is generated by renewable resources.Green energy widely help for pollution free environment.Professional from american power and gas briefly describe about renewable energy.


Presentation Transcript

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• These are resources found in nature that are self- regenerating: • These sources are normally used to produce clean or green energy. This production does not lead to climate change and does not involve emission of pollutants. • A related term is sustainable energy: this concept refers to generating energy with an awareness of the future i.e. in a way that would enable future generations to meet their energy needs too. What renewables are

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Renewable energy is growing in importance and popularity: • Because of the desire and necessity to avert irreversible climate damage • Because of increasing oil prices • Because of the unreliability of non-renewable resources e.g. the depletion of oil wells. • In view of all these and other factors governments worldwide support renewables with various incentives. • This in turn encourages entrepreneurs to make large-scale investments in renewable energy.

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Main types of renewable energy • Solar energy • Wind energy • Hydropower water power • Biofuels • Geothermal energy There are many sources of renewable energy but all of them except geothermal energy are more or less directly related to the sun: the main source of clean and sustainable energy for the earth.

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Solar energy Apart from the everyday applications of solar energy such as room lighting it is harnessed by two quite different methods: photovoltaic and solar thermal. Photovoltaics PV: the application of solar cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity. When PV cells are assembled they form a PV module or panel. An installation of panels is called a PV array. Solar cells are often made from wafers: slices of semiconductor material such as silicon crystal. Solar thermal energy STE: a technology that uses solar energy to produce thermal energy i.e. heat. There are low- medium- and high-temperature solar thermal collectors. The first two types are flat plates generally used to heat water. High- temperature collectors concentrate sunlight with mirrors or lenses and are mostly used to produce electricity. This technique is known as concentrated solar power CSP. World leaders in PV use: Germany USA Spain

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Solar energy 2 CSP systems are also able to track the movement of the sun. The radiation they concentrate is used as a heat source for a conventional plant to produce heat or electricity concentrating solar thermal CST systems or is directed to PV surfaces to generate electrical power concentrating PV CPV technology. CSP allows solar installations to increase their productivity. CSP plants take up smaller areas which helps to reduce costs. There are various concentrating technologies the most prominent being the solar trough the parabolic dish and the solar power tower. A notable and ambitious project is the solar power satellite: a system of solar collectors in space that would be directly exposed to the sun’s radiation and would transmit the generated power to a large antenna on the earth. The costs for the satellite’s construction however would be very high.

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Wind energy The energy of wind is harnessed with wind turbines. They are usually grouped in wind farms sometimes called wind parks. There are onshore farms which however are often near water nearshore farms on land or on sea within several km of a coast and offshore parks ten km or more from land. Wind energy currently generates only 1 of all electricity on a global scale but its share is growing rapidly. In Denmark for example wind already accounts for 19 of the total electricity production. Since wind is intermittent turbines can’t constantly work at their full capacities. The ratio of actual annual productivity to the theoretical maximum capacity is called capacity factor. It typically reaches 20 to 40. World leaders in wind energy use: Germany USA Spain India

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Hydropower Hydropower also called hydraulic or water power is derived from the force of moving water. Since water is much denser than air its movement generates more energy than wind does. Electricity generated with hydropower is called hydroelectricity. Hydropower was harnessed with waterwheels to operate watermills sawmills textile machines and others long before electric power came into use. Hydroelectricity is mostly generated in dams. Water is first collected in dams then let flow through turbines. A great advantage of this technology is that the amount of energy produced can be easily adjusted to the level of demand by controlling the outflow of water. Hydropower supplies some 19 of all electricity in the world. It is generally far cheaper than fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Another technology that utilizes a dam but no reservoir is the run-of-the- river hydroelectric generation. Here the dam cuts across the river ensuring water will fall from its upper edge pass through turbines and flow back into the lower level of the river. In some run-of-the- river installations water is directed into a pipe from where it passes through turbines and returns into the river.

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The lack of a reservoir reduces the negative environmental impact of the power installations. However there are certain problems related to dams such as high construction and maintenance costs the risk of dam breakage and perils for water fauna. To avoid these complications damless hydroelectricity has been created. Hydropower 2 World leaders in hydropower use: China Brazil Canada USA India Tidal power technologies convert the energy of tides into electricity. Their biggest advantage is the fact that tides are much more predictable than wind or solar energy. However tidal power is not very common yet. Tidal energy is captured with tidal stream systems which use the kinetic energy of moving water to drive turbines. A less popular technology to capture tidal energy are barrages similar to dams which use the water’s potential energy Another up-and-coming electric source is wave power. One wave power technology employs buoyant objects that the waves move creating electricity. With wind turbines the air fluctuations caused by the moving water can also be used to produce power. A project that uses the movement of the water below its surface has also been developed. The first wave farm a collection of wave power generators in the world was opened in 2008 in Portugal. Its capacity is 2.25 MW. Scotland plans to build an even larger facility.

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Biomass and biofuel Biomass consists of living or recently dead organisms or other biological material i.e. carbon. Biomass is used to produce biofuel. The most common material for biofuels are photosynthetic plants. A plant especially grown to be used for biofuel manufacturing is known as an energy crop. Biodiesel is a very common biofuel. It is made from oils extracted from maize soy rapeseed sunflower palm fruit and sometimes from animal products that undergo chemical processing. Used edible vegetable oil is sometimes transformed into biodiesel too. Biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel to be used in diesel engines. Biogas is produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. The biodegradable materials in question can be manure sewage green waste plant parts household and industrial waste. Biogases are rich in methane. They can be used to generate heat electric or mechanical energy or as fuel for vehicles. Biogas is produced in facilities for biological treatment of waste. It is also formed naturally in landfills where it contributes to the greenhouse effect. Bioalcohol or alcohol fuel is produced with the help of fermentation- inducing microorganisms. The most common is ethanol fuel or bioethanol that is widely used instead of petrol to power cars in some countries predominantly Brazil. World leaders in biomass use: USA Germany Brazil UK

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Geothermal energy This type of energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth which is mostly in the form of hot water and steam. Various technologies are used to get to the heat under the earth’s surface at different depths. Several metres under the earth’s surface the temperature is between 10° and 16°C. In winter this heat can be brought to buildings with pipes. Another technology uses deep wells in hot rock in which fluid is heated to produce steam which then drives turbines to generate electricity. Geothermal power stations are expensive to build but their operating costs are low. A significant advantage is that geothermal energy is not dependent on weather conditions. A major disadvantage is the risk for land stability in the region where such a plant is constructed. In some areas of the planet geothermal energy is closer to the surface and therefore easier to harness. One of the most favourable areas is Iceland with its high concentration of volcanoes. Geothermal sources account for 19 of Iceland’s electricity production and geothermal heating is used in 87 of homes in the country. Iceland also plans to go fully fossil-fuel free in the near future. The country with the greatest geothermal energy production however is the USA. There is the biggest dry steam field.

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We can’t run out of renewables because nature replenishes them faster than we consume them. Pros and cons Biomass and geothermal energy need wise management to avoid their depletion. The use of domestic power generators e.g. solar panels on the roof reduces the strain on power distribution systems. If clean energy becomes prevalent the electricity transmission and distribution systems must be transformed and managed more actively why: see next slide. Renewables are generally not hazardous to the environment. Some green energy installations take up large pieces of land that can be used to grow crops. Green electricity is becoming increasingly accessible to the average consumer. Renewable heat is still expensive and hard to access.

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What energy qualifies as renewable Some scientists and politicians argue that nuclear energy is renewable since the resources from which it is derived such as uranium would not be exhausted in millions of years. These claims however have not been proven furthermore nuclear energy has an extremely dangerous byproduct: nuclear waste. For this reason governments don’t recognize nuclear energy as renewable and it is not eligible for state subsidies. Fossil fuels could be regarded as biomass since their have biological origin however they are neither sustainable nor green because: •this is organic material that has undergone millennium-long geological transformation •thus the regeneration rates of fossil fuels are extremely slower than the rate at which they are consumed •fossil fuels emit CO 2 when burnt.

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