SP3H Grammar Book (final)

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PowerPoint Presentation:

SP3H Grammar Book By: Amata Leno

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Preterite & Imperfect Por & Para Stressed Possessive adjectives and pronouns Ud . & Uds . Commands Present subjunctive Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial Conjunctions Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Tu Commands Nosotros Commands Past Participles used as Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Conditional Tense Past Subjunctive

Preterite & Imperfect:

Preterite & Imperfect Yo É Í Tu aste iste El/Ella/ Ud . ó ió Nosotros amos imos Ellos / Ellas / Uds . aron ieron AR -aba - abas -aba - abamos - aban ER/IR - ía - ías - ía - íamos - íaron Imperfect Preterite Iba Era Veia Ibas Eras Veias Iba Era Veia Ibamos Eramos Veiamos Iban Eran Veian IR SER VER Car > yo > que Gar> yo > gue Zar > yo > ce Andar : anduve Etstar : estuve Poder : pude Poner : Puse Querer : Quise Saber : supe Tener : tuve Venir : vine Conducir : conduje Traducir : traduje Decir : dije Traer : traje -e - iste -o - imos - ieron

Por & Para:

Por & Para Destination / place Destination / person A future time limit Purpose / goal Use / function Comparisons Opinion POR PARA Motion/place Means/manner In exchange for/substitution Duration of an action Indefinite time period On behalf of

Stressed Possessive adjectives & Pronouns:

Stressed Possessive adjectives & Pronouns Stressed: Mi (s) Tu (s) Su (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Su (s) Unstressed: Mio (a) Tuyo (a) Suyo (a) Nuestro (a) Suyo (a) Mios (as) Tuyos (as) Suyos (as) Nuestros (as) Suyos (as) Must agree in # and gender Placement: Noun + Stressed Possessive Adjective Unstressed Possessive Adjective + Noun Definite Article Infinite Article Demonstrative Article Noun + Stressed Possessive Adjective [article] + [noun] + de + [subject pronoun]

Ud. & Uds. Commands:

Ud . & Uds . Commands Formal commands ( Ud . and Uds . ) Infinitive l impiar b arrer s audir d ecir (e- i ) p ensar (e- ie ) v olver (o- ue ) s ervir (e- i ) Present tense yo form l imp io b arr o s acud o d ig o p iens o v uelv o s irv o Ud . Command limpi e b arr a sacud a dig a piens e v uelv a s irv a Uds . Commands limpi en barr an sacud an dig an piens en vuelv an sirv an The usted and ustedes commands are formed by dropping the final –o of the yo form of the present tense. For – a r verbs, add –e or –en and – ir verbs, add –a or –an . dar > de estar > este ir > vaya saber > sepa ser > sea IRREGULARS

Present Subjunctive :

Present Subjunctive Present Subjunctive Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical Main clause + connector + subordinate clause - ar : e, es , e, emos , en - er /- ir : a, as, a, amos , an Irregulars: dar : de estar : este ir : vaya saber: sepa haber : haya ser : sea e s necesario que … es malo que … es triste que … es bueno que … es mejor que … es importante que … es urgente que … Impersonal Expressoins

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence :

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Verbs of will & influence rogar (o- ue ); to beg sugerir ( i-ie ): to suggest aconsejar : to advise importar : to matter insistir : to insist mandar : to order recomendar (o- ue ): to recommend prohibir : to prohibit

Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial :

Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial Common verbs & expression of emotion Expressions of doubt, disbelief, & denial - alegrarse (de) : to be happy - esperar : to hope, to wish - sentir (e- ie ) : to be sorry - sorprender : to surprise - temer : to be afraid - es triste : it’s sad - ojala ( que ) : I hope (that) - dudar : to doubt - negar (e- ie ) : to deny - es imposible : it’s impossible - es improbable : it’s improbable -no es cierto : it’s not true -no es seguro : it’s not certain -no es verdad : it’s not true

Conjunctions:

Conjunctions Conjunctions coordinate 2 or more words that have the same function. They can put sentences together. y: and e: and ni : neither, nor Conjunctions put together words or sentences to express different or conflicting alternatives. u: or o: or, either more conjunctions: que : that, which y: and como : like, as pero : but, yet o: or si : if, whether porque : because cuando : when

PowerPoint Presentation:

Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause when the antecedent is someone or something whose existence is unknown, hypothetical or uncertain from the point of view of the speaker If the antecedent is known to exist, the indicative is used When the antecedent is not mentioned, adjective clauses are introduced by lo que

Tu Commands:

Tu Commands Di, Haz , Ve , Pon , Sal , Se , Ten , Ven AFFIRMATIVE Put verb in ‘ Tu ’ form and drop the ‘s’ NEGATIVE Put verb in ‘ Yo ’ form and change to the opposite vowel, add an ‘s’ Irregulars

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands vamos a + infinitve affirmative NEGATIVE Affirmative and negative nosotros commands are formed by using the first person plural form of the present subjunctive no vayamos

Past Participles used as adjectives :

Past Participles used as adjectives - ar verbs end in –ado - er /- ir verbs end in - ido Los Irregulares Abrir – abierto Morir – muerto Decir – dicha Poner – puesto Describir – descrito Resolver – resuelto Descrubrir – descrubierto Romper – roto Escribir – escrito Ver – visto Hacer – hecho Volver - vuelto To use the past participle as an adjective: Use the verb estar with the past particple . Ex: El gimnasio esta cerrado .

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect The Present Perfect is formed with the present tense of haber and a past participle . Singular Forms Plural Forms Yo – he Nosotros /as – hemos Tu – has Ud ./el/ ella – ha Uds ./ ellas / ellos - han Forms of HABER Examples: Tu no has cerrado la puerta . Yo ha he leido esos libros . Yo no le cobrado el cheque .

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect The past perfect uses the Imperfect of haber + past participle. Cerrar Perder Asistir Yo Habia cerrado Habia perdido Habia asistido Tu Habias cerrado Habias perdido Habias asistido Ud ./el/ ella Habia cerrado Habia perdido Habia asisitido Nosotros Habiamos cerrado Habiamos perdido Habiamos asisitido Uds ./ ellos / ellas Habian cerrado Habian perdido Habian asistido

Future Tense:

Future Tense E As A Emos An Infinitive + Decir Dir - Dire Hacer Har - Hare Poder Podr - Podre Poner Pondr - Pondre Querer Querr - Querre Saber Sabr - Sabre Tener Tendr - Tendre Venir Vendr - Vendre IRREGULARS

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense Infinitve + Ia Ias Ia Iamos Ian Decir Dir - Diria Hacer Har - Haria Poder Podr - Podria Poner Pondr - Pondria Querer Querr - Querria Saber Sabr - Sabria Tener Tendr - Tendria Venir Vendr - Vendria

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive Estudiar Aprender Recibir Yo Estudia ra Aprendie ra Recibie ra Tu Estudia ras Aprendie ras Recibie ras Ud ./el/ ella Estudia ra Aprendie ra Recibie ra Nos Estudia ramos Aprendie ramos Recibie ramos Uds ./ ellos / ellas Estudia ran Aprendie ran Recibie ran

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