Nanotechnology and its applications

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Nanotechnology and its applications:

Nanotechnology and its applications Prepared and presented before you by : Thomas Paul

Main points to be discussed::

Main points to be discussed: What is nanotechnology?..................................................................................... # Its history…………………………………………..…………………………………………………. # High end inventions……..…………………………………………………………………………. # Agricultural applications………………………………………………………………………….. # Construction applications………………………………………………………….…..………… # Chemical and Filtration applications………..………………………………………....……... # Data and IT storage applications………………………………..……………………………… # Defense applications……………………….…………………………………………………..…. # Diet applications………………………………………………………………………………..….. # Electronics applications………………………………………………………………..……….… # Energy applications…………………………………………………………………..……….…... # Heavy industry applications………………………………………………………..….…….….. # Household applications…………………………………………………………………………… # Medicinal applications………………………………………………………………………….…. # Nanotechnology and film….………………………………………………………………….….. # Silver ion technology by SAMSUNG………………………………………………………….… # Waste management……………………………………………………………………………….. # Photos……………………………………………………………………………………………..….. # Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..…….….. #

What is nanotechnology ?:

What is nanotechnology ? Nanotechnology refers to the processing, separation, Consolidation, and deformation of materials in Nanoscale. A nanometre refers to 1/1,000,000 of a metre. i.e. your hair will be almost 1,000 nanometres in diameter . C60 fullerenes are found to be superconductors at 32 º K when doped or coated with rubidium, i.e. their resistance is almost nil .

History :

History Nanotechnology has a very long history from Buckminster fullerenes to today’s latest computer processors. Humans unwittingly employed nanotechnology for thousands of years, for example in making steel, paintings and in vulcanizing rubber, long before the word nanotechnology was coined! Tom Newman in 1985, scaled down the letters of a dictionary so that it fitted in the head of an office pin. In 1974, Dr. Tuomo Suntola and his team, in Finland developed a method called ” Atomic layer deposition “ which is now used to layer circuits in most electronic devices. The scientific world awaited such crazy inventions. But 21 st century awaits more of daily life applications from nanotechnology.

High end inventions::

High end inventions: Here we will be discussing some major inventions that happened due to the developments in nanotechnology:- 1.Carbon nanotubes 2.Scanning tunnel microscope 3. Nanorobotics 4.Molectronics

1.Carbon Nanotubes::

1.Carbon Nanotubes: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 28,000,000:1, which is significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient thermal conductors. But will be limited by their potential toxicity and controlling their property changes in response to chemical treatment.

2.Scanning tunnel microscope(STM)::

2.Scanning tunnel microscope(STM): A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. For an STM, good resolution is considered to be 0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth resolution. With this resolution, individual atoms within materials are routinely imaged and manipulated. The STM can be used not only in ultra high vacuum but also in air, water, and various other liquid or gas ambient, and at temperatures ranging from near zero Kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius.

Slide 8:

The STM is based on the concept of quantum tunneling. When a conducting tip is brought very near to the surface to be examined, a bias (voltage difference) applied between the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum between them. The resulting tunneling current is a function of tip position, applied voltage, and the local density of states (LDOS) of the sample. Information is acquired by monitoring the current as the tip's position scans across the surface, and is usually displayed in image form. STM can be a challenging technique, as it can require extremely clean and stable surfaces, sharp tips, excellent vibration control, and sophisticated electronics.

3.Nanorobotics::

3.Nanorobotics: Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer(10 −9 meters). More specifically, Nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology-engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots , devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of Nanoscale or molecular components. As no artificial non-biological nanorobots have yet been created, they remain a hypothetical concept. The names nanobots , nanoids , nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe these hypothetical devices.

Slide 10:

Biochip The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials, can be considered as a possible way to enable the required manufacturing technology towards nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. Indeed, this feasible approach towards manufacturing on nanotechnology is a practice currently in use from the electronics industry. So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation. Nubots Nubot is an abbreviation for "nucleic acid robots." Nubots are synthetic robotics devices at the nanoscale. Representative nubots include the several DNA walkers which can alter human DNA.

Slide 11:

Positional nanoassembly Nanofactory Collaboration, founded by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in 2000, is a focused ongoing effort involving 23 researchers from 10 organizations and 4 countries that is developing a practical research agenda specifically aimed at developing positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and a diamondoid nanofactory that would be capable of building diamondoid medical nanorobots. Open Technology In the same way Linux and OpenSource has in recent years accelerated the development of computer systems, a similar approach should benefit the society at large and accelerate nanorobotics development.

Slide 12:

Bacteria based This approach proposes the use biological microorganisms, like E coli bacteria. Hence, the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. The use of electromagnetic fields are normally applied to control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device, although has limited applications. Nanorobots Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery.These machines will face some unique physics. At small scales, fluids appear as viscous as molasses, and Brownian motion makes everything incessantly shake. Taking inspiration from the biological motors of living cells, chemists are learning how to power microsize and nanosize machines with catalytic reactions.

4.Molecular Electronics:

4.Molecular Electronics Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics ) is an interdisciplinary theme that spans physics, chemistry, and materials science. The unifying feature of this area is the use of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components, both passive (e.g. resistive wires) and active (e.g. transistors). Due to the broad use of the term, molecular electronics can be split into two related but separate subdisciplines: molecular materials for electronics utilizes the properties of the molecules to affect the bulk properties of a material, while molecular scale electronics focuses on single-molecule applications.

Agricultural applications::

Agricultural applications: Applications of nanotechnology have the potential to change the entire agriculture sector and food industry chain from production to conservation, processing, packaging, transportation, and even waste treatment. NanoScience concepts and Nanotechnology applications have the potential to redesign the production cycle, restructure the processing and conservation processes and redefine the food habits of the people. Major Challenges related to agriculture like Low productivity in cultivable areas, Large uncultivable areas, Shrinkage of cultivable lands, Wastage of inputs like water, fertilizers, pesticides, Wastage of products and of course Food security for growing numbers can be addressed through various applications of nanotechnology.

Construction applications::

Construction applications: Nanotechnology has the potential to make construction faster, cheaper, safer, and more varied. In fact you’ll have automation of nanotechnology construction that can allow for the creation of structures from advanced homes to massive skyscrapers with much more speed, almost 240 times strongly and at much lower cost. Nanoparticles that are added to the concrete or the building material which provides strength, instant lighting (fluorescent like, luminous walls, even with displays) striking off the need of lighting.

Chemical and Filtration applications::

Chemical and Filtration applications: Chemical catalysis and filtration techniques are two prominent examples where nanotechnology already plays a role. In a sense, all chemical synthesis can be understood in terms of nanotechnology, because of its ability to manufacture certain molecules. Thus, chemistry forms a base for nanotechnology providing tailor-made molecules, polymers, etcetera, as well as clusters and nanoparticles. Catalysis Chemical catalysis benefits especially from nanoparticles, due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio. The application potential of nanoparticles in catalysis ranges from fuel cell to catalytic converters and photocatalytic devices. Catalysis is also important for the production of chemicals. Platinum nanoparticles are now being considered in the next generation of automotive catalytic converters because the very high surface area of nanoparticles could reduce the amount of platinum required.

Slide 17:

Filtration: A strong influence of nanochemistry on waste-water treatment, air purification and energy storage devices is to be expected. Mechanical or chemical methods can be used for effective filtration techniques. One class of filtration techniques is based on the use of membranes with suitable hole sizes, whereby the liquid is pressed through the membrane. Nanoporous membranes are suitable for a mechanical filtration with extremely small pores smaller than 10 nm (“nanofiltration”) and may be composed of nanotubes. Nanofiltration is mainly used for the removal of ions or the separation of different fluids. On a larger scale, the membrane filtration technique is named ultrafiltration, which works down to between 10 and 100 nm.

Slide 18:

One important field of application for ultrafiltration is medical purposes as can be found in renal dialysis. Magnetic nanoparticles offer an effective and reliable method to remove heavy metal contaminants from waste water by making use of magnetic separation techniques. Using nanoscale particles increases the efficiency to absorb the contaminants and is comparatively inexpensive compared to traditional precipitation and filtration methods. Some water-treatment devices incorporating nanotechnology are already on the market, with more in development. Low-cost nanostructured separation membranes methods have been shown to be effective in producing potable water in a recent study.

Data and IT storage applications::

Data and IT storage applications: Current high-technology production processes are based on traditional top down strategies, where nanotechnology has already been introduced silently. The critical length scale of integrated circuits is already at the nanoscale (50 nm and below) regarding the gate length of transistors in CPUs or DRAM devices. Memory Storage Electronic memory designs in the past have largely relied on the formation of transistors. However, research into crossbar switch based electronics have offered an alternative using reconfigurable interconnections between vertical and horizontal wiring arrays to create ultra high density memories. This will lead to memories of ultra capacity(a flash USB drive of normal size would hold upto 5,000 TERA bytes[1TB=2 20 MB])

Slide 20:

Displays The production of displays with low energy consumption could be accomplished using carbon nanotubes (CNT). Carbon nanotubes are electrically conductive and due to their small diameter of several nanometers, they can be used as field emitters with extremely high efficiency for field emission displays (FED). The principle of operation resembles that of the cathode ray tube, but on a much smaller length scale. Quantum computers Entirely new approaches for computing exploit the laws of quantum mechanics for novel quantum computers, which enable the use of fast quantum algorithms. The Quantum computer has quantum bit memory space termed "Qubit" for several computations at the same time. This facility may improve the performance of the older systems.

Defense applications::

Defense applications: We expect these developments: Nanomite war heads which can cause a controlled destruction which will destroy any matter in it’s path. Nanoexplosionboosters which would increase explosion capacity about 400% Stronger armours implanted under the warrior’s skin. More efficient fuels for army vehicles and propelled weapons.

Diet applications::

Diet applications: Complex set of engineering and scientific challenges in the food and bioprocessing industry for manufacturing high quality and safe food through efficient and sustainable means can be solved through nanotechnology. Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring using biosensors; intelligent, active, and smart food packaging systems; nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds are few examples of emerging applications of nanotechnology for the food industry. Nanotechnology can be applied in the production, processing, safety and packaging of food. A nanocomposite coating process could improve food packaging by placing anti-microbial agents directly on the surface of the coated film. Nanocomposites could increase or decrease gas permeability of different fillers as is needed for different products.

Slide 23:

Nano-foods New consumer products Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN), based on an inventory it has drawn up of 609 known or claimed nano-products. On PEN's list are three foods -- a brand of canola cooking oil called Canola Active Oil, a tea called Nanotea and a chocolate diet shake called Nanoceuticals Slim Shake Chocolate. According to company information posted on PEN's Web site, the canola oil, by Shemen Industries of Israel, contains an additive called " nanodrops " designed to carry vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals through the digestive system. The shake, according to U.S. manufacturer RBC Life Sciences Inc., uses cocoa infused " NanoClusters " to enhance the taste and health benefits of cocoa without the need for extra sugar.

Electronic applications::

Recent hypothesis include : Displays with nano wires as electrode would be of thickness max. of .5 mm NED or nano emissive diode which will have the brightness of 500 normal LED’s. High end integrated circuits which helps in reducing a main frame computer who weighs at lest 2 tonnes and with a normal dimensions of 8 x 6 x 5 metres into the size of a soap tray. Electronic applications: A nanocircuit made on graphite with organic semiconductor

Energy applications::

Energy applications: The most advanced nanotechnology projects related to energy are: storage, conversion, manufacturing improvements by reducing materials and process rates, energy saving (by better thermal insulation for example), and enhanced renewable energy sources. Reduction of energy consumption A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems, by the use of more efficient lighting or combustion systems, and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. Currently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. Nanotechnological approaches like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or quantum caged atoms (QCAs) could lead to a strong reduction of energy consumption for illumination.

Slide 26:

Increasing the efficiency of energy production: Today's best solar cells have layers of several different semiconductors stacked together to absorb light at different energies but they still only manage to use 40 percent of the Sun's energy. Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies (15-20%). Nanotechnology could help increase the efficiency of light conversion by altering and combining these semi-conductor layers with nanoparticles. The degree of efficiency of the best internal combustion engine is about 30-40% at the moment. Nanotechnology could improve combustion by designing specific catalysts with maximized surface area. In 2005, scientists at the University of Toronto developed a spray-on nanoparticle substance that, when applied to a surface, instantly transforms it into a solar collector.

Slide 27:

The use of more environment friendly energy systems: An example for an environment friendly form of energy is the use of fuel cells powered by hydrogen, which is ideally produced by renewable energies. Probably the most prominent nanostructured material in fuel cells is the catalyst consisting of carbon supported noble metal particles with diameters of 1-5 nm. Suitable materials for hydrogen storage contain a large number of small nanosized pores. Therefore many nanostructured materials like nanotubes, zeolites or alanates are under investigation. Nanotechnology can contribute to the further reduction of combustion engine pollutants by nanoporous filters, which can clean the exhaust mechanically, by catalytic converters based on nanoscale noble metal particles or by catalytic coatings on cylinder walls and catalytic nanoparticles as additive for fuels.

Slide 28:

Recycling of batteries Because of the relatively low energy density of batteries the operating time is limited and a replacement or recharging is needed. The huge number of spent batteries and accumulators represent a disposal problem. The use of batteries with higher energy content or the use of rechargeable batteries or supercapacitors with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful for the battery disposal problem.

Heavy industry applications::

Heavy industry applications: An inevitable use of nanotechnology will be in heavy industry. Aerospace Lighter and stronger materials will be of immense use to aircraft manufacturers, leading to increased performance. Spacecraft will also benefit, where weight is a major factor. Nanotechnology would help to reduce the size of equipment and thereby decrease fuel-consumption required to get it airborne. Hang gliders may be able to halve their weight while increasing their strength and toughness through the use of nanotech materials.

Slide 30:

Nanotech is lowering the mass of supercapacitors that will increasingly be used to give power to assistive electrical motors for launching hang gliders off flatland to thermal-chasing altitudes. Refineries Using nanotech applications, factories producing materials such as steel and aluminium will be able to remove any impurities in the materials they create. Vehicle manufacturers Much like aerospace, lighter and stronger materials will be useful for creating vehicles that are both faster and safer. Combustion engines will also benefit from parts that are more hard-wearing and more heat-resistant.

Household applications::

Household applications: Household The most prominent application of nanotechnology in the household is self-cleaning or “easy-to-clean” surfaces on ceramics or glasses. Nanoceramic particles have improved the smoothness and heat resistance of common household equipment such as the flat iron. Optics The first sunglasses using protective and anti-reflective ultrathin polymer coatings are on the market. For optics, nanotechnology also offers scratch resistant surface coatings based on nanocomposites. Nano-optics could allow for an increase in precision of pupil repair and other types of laser eye surgery.

Slide 32:

Textiles The use of engineered nanofibers already makes clothes water- and stain-repellent or wrinkle-free. Textiles with a nanotechnological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperatures. Nanotechnology has been used to integrate tiny carbon particles membrane and guarantee full-surface protection from electrostatic charges for the wearer. Cosmetics One field of application is in sunscreens. The traditional chemical UV protection approach suffers from its poor long-term stability. A sunscreen based on mineral nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide offer several advantages. Titanium oxide nanoparticles have a comparable UV protection property as the bulk material, but lose the cosmetically undesirable whitening as the particle size is decreased.

Medicinal applications::

Medicinal applications: The biological and medical research communities have exploited the unique properties of nanomaterials for various applications Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. Diagnostics Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample.

Slide 34:

Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures. Drug delivery The overall drug consumption and side-effects can be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. This highly selective approach reduces costs and human suffering. They could hold small drug molecules transporting them to the desired location. Another vision is based on nano electromechanical systems; NEMS are being investigated for the active release of drugs. Some potentially important applications include cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells. A targeted or personalized medicine reduces the drug consumption and treatment expenses resulting in an overall societal benefit by reducing the costs to the public health system.

Slide 35:

Nanotechnology is also opening up new opportunities in implantable delivery systems, which are often preferable to the use of injectable drugs, because the latter frequently display first-order kinetics (the blood concentration goes up rapidly, but drops exponentially over time). This rapid rise may cause difficulties with toxicity, and drug efficacy can diminish as the drug concentration falls below the targeted range. Tissue engineering Nanotechnology can help to reproduce or to repair damaged tissue. “Tissue engineering” makes use of artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue engineering might replace today’s conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Advanced forms of tissue engineering may lead to life extension.

Slide 36:

For patients with end-state organ failure, there may not be enough healthy cells for expansion and transplantation into the ECM (extracellular matrix). In this case, stem cells are needed. One potential source for these cells is iSC (induced Stem cells); these are ordinary cells from the patients own body that are reprogrammed into a virgin state, and has the advantage of avoiding rejection (and the potentially life-threatening complications associated with immunosuppressive treatments). Another potential source of pluripotent cells is from embryos, but this has two disadvantages: 1) It requires that we solve the problem of cloning, which is technically very difficult (especially preventing abnormalities). 2) It requires the harvesting of embryos. Given that each one of us was once an embryo, this source is ethically problematic.

Nanotechnology and films: :

Nanotechnology and films: Michael Crichton's novel Prey was one of the earliest books themed primarily around nanotechnology to reach a mainstream audience, and acts as a cautionary tale with respect to the possible risks of developing nanotechnology. In Prey, a swarm of molecule-sized nanorobots develop intelligence and become a large scale threat. Robert Ludlum's novel The Lazarus Vendetta also focuses around nanotechnology, focusing mainly on its ability to cure cancer. In the video game series Mortal kombat the character Smoke is made up of nanobots witch gives him the appearance that he is made of smoke.

Slide 38:

In the television show Red Dwarf "nanobots" play a huge role in the plot of the last three series. Nanobots are nanotechnology created to be a self repair system for androids like Kryten as they can also change anything into any other thing. Kryten's nanobots grow bored of their duties and take over the ship Red Dwarf, leaving the crew to try and recapture it aboard the smaller Starbug craft. The video game series Metal Gear Solid has been notable in its use of nanotechnology. The first in the series featured a virus-like weapon known as FOXDIE, created through protein engineering, which would only target individuals with specific genetic code. Metal Gear Solid 2's protagonist featured artificial blood infused with nanomachines, to close wounds and serve other functions.

Slide 39:

In Red Faction Guerilla, a weapon called the nano rifle can be used to destroy human structures and disintegrate human flesh. Nanotechnology also was featured within the video game Crysis. Its protagonist, call sign, Nomad is equipped with a "Nano Suit", which enables him to become invisible and accomplish a plethora of other feats. In the 2008 film The Day the Earth Stood Still, the alien robot dubbed "GORT" disintegrates into a swarm of self-replicating nanobots shaped like bugs that cover Earth and destroy all lifeforms and artificial structures by seemingly devouring them within seconds.

Slide 40:

In the 2009 film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, the main plot is to save the world from a warhead containing deadly nano bots called the "Nanomites" which if detonated over the city could eat it up in couple of hours. Nanomites appear also in the Devil's Due GI Joe reinstated storyline. In the film I, Robot , nanites are used to wipe out artificial intelligence in the event of a malfunction. They are seen to be used on an NS5 and on VIKI at the end of the film. The nanites themselves are never seen; however a liquid containing moving silver objects is seen.

Silver ion technology by : :

Silver ion technology by : Silver Nano ( Silver Nano Health System ) is a trademark name of an antibacterial technology which uses silver nanoparticles in washing machines, refrigerators, air conditioners, air purifiers and vacuum cleaners introduced by Samsung in April 2003. Beneficial claims Samsung home appliances such as refrigerator or air conditioner with silver nano coating to their inner surfaces for an overall anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effect. As air circulates, the coated surfaces contact with the silver ions which can resist any airborne bacteria, which in turn suppress the respiration of bacteria, adversely affects bacteria's cellular metabolism and inhibits cell growth. They maintain that the silver nano technology sterilizes over 650 types of bacteria and a "Samsung WM1245A Washing Machine releases over 400 billion silver ions which penetrate deeply into fabrics of any kind and create a coat of sterilizing protection for a maximum of 99.99% disinfection and an added antibacterial effect of up to 30 days after washing“.

Slide 42:

According to Paul Lipscomb, Product Manager, White Goods, Samsung Australia: "The Silver Wash system means that it's no longer necessary to soak clothes in additives or wash at extremely high temperatures in order to sanitize them. “ In 2005 the South Korean Consumer Protection Board, published test results, according to which Samsung's Silver Wash technology has no superior sterilization effect, as the company claims in advertisements, when compared with similar drum-type washers of LG Electronics and Whirlpool. Environmental concerns The German branch of Friends of the Earth, has asked consumers not to buy a new type of washing machine that uses silver nanoparticles. It criticized the product, claiming that considerable amounts of silver could seriously trouble the biological purification process of waste water and claimed that silver nanoparticles have a toxic effect on different kinds of living cells. Samsung countered that only an accumulated amount of 0.05 grams of silver is released per machine, per year, while the released silver-ions quickly bind to non-nano-sized structures in the water.

Waste management::

Waste management: Nanorobots consume any thing ! That means waste? Junk?………………………….Yes ! Nanites digest every material into simple organic molecules and inorganic molecules are separated for processing. That means once nanotechnology is into our daily life you’ll not be having waste.

Slide 44:

Nokia’s MORPH cell phone The best example of application of nanotechnology. The phone you see here is the prototype. It has nano circuits, it can be bent or twisted or smashed by driving a car over it but doesn't get damaged. It can be folded into a small piece or rolled into pen.

Slide 45:

A nanorobot (bacteria inspired) used for drug delivery[top,red] Carbon Nanotubes Heart diagonostic nanomite Eye gear made of nano crystalline glass Including digital display.

Acknowledgements::

Acknowledgements: I extend heartfelt gratitude to my : JAYASHREE MAM- for providing support to stage my presentation. FRIENDS- for encouraging me to present, and their co-operation with me. EVERYONE IN MY FAMILY- for providing me with a peaceful environment, though it was vacation. ALL STAKEHOLDERS OF WIKIPEDIA- for all their matter I’ve used to present this one.

Slide 47:

From Thomas Paul, Please send your comments to : cosmicbluetom@gmail.com

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