Microorganisms! (1)

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MICROORGANISMS

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What are Microorganisms? Microorganisms are very tiny one-celled organisms, and are found everywhere in the world. They are found in all living things, plants and animal. There are more microorganisms on and inside your body than there are cells that make up your entire body. Microorganisms can live in the air, on land, and in fresh or salt water environments. Some of them, pathogens, can be harmful and causes diseases, but there are some microorganisms that are needed for living things to survive .

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What do microorganisms do ? Microorganisms are responsible for building fertile soil for plants to grow in. Microbes stick to the roots of plants and decompose dead organic matter into food for the plant to absorb. The plants that live and grow because of the microorganisms that live on them make a home for other animals to live in. Some microorganisms make people, animals, and plants sick, but others make people well and kill the bacteria on plants that make them sick. Drug companies that make medicines use hundreds of different microorganisms to make medicines that will help cure diseases. Human waste products are broken down into safer particles by some microorganism. Scientists are always looking for new ways to use microbes, and only a few uses have been listed here.

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TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS BACTERIA ALGAE PROTOZOA FUNGI VIRUS

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BACTERIA Bacteria are part of a very large group of single-celled organisms. There is one group of bacteria that have chlorophyll and use the process of photosynthesis to produce their own food. Bacteria that are parasites live inside man, animals, and some plants causing diseases. Symptoms for disease caused by the toxins that bacteria produce inside the cells. Some bacteria are aerobic, meaning that they require oxygen in order to survive. Other bacteria are anaerobes, meaning that they do not require oxygen to survive. Bacteria is moved by air and water currents, and on any surface such as clothing, hands, or any object. They move themselves by using thin hair-like structures called flagella or by wriggling if they do not have a flagella.

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ALGAE Algae are photosynthetic organisms (contain chlorophyll) and obtain their energy from the sun and their carbon from carbon dioxide. Their size ranges from one micron to many meters. All organisms that use carbon dioxide for their carbon requirement are called autotrophs. Algae are generally beneficial in aquaculture by supplying oxygen. . They live in water, damp soil, and rocks and produce oxygen and carbohydrates used by other organisms. Algae can be used to make Biodiesel. It is a complete protein with essential amino acids that are involved in major processes such as energy and enzyme production. They are used as fertilizers and soil conditioners too. Algae are used in Wastewater Treatment facilities, reducing the need for greater amounts of toxic chemicals than are already used.

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PROTOZOA The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of them can only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce like multicelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is damp. Animals in this group include the paramecium, the euglena and the amoeba. Some protozoan's are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases. Others are helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animals. Protozoa have been found in almost every kind of soil environment from peat bogs to arid desert sands. They teem in the deep sea as well as near the surface of waters, and can be found even in frigid Arctic and Antarctic waters. Protozoa absorb food through their cell membranes.

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FUNGI Fungi is a group of simple plants that have no chlorophyll. There are some species of fungi that are single celled organisms, and there are other kinds of fungi that are multi-cellular organisms. Fungi are made up of filaments called hyphe that are stacked together from end to end. Some kinds of fungi live on land and other types of fungi live in water environments. Since fungi has no chlorophyll, it can not make its own food. Some types of fungi lives off of other organisms and are parasites, but other fungi species feed off of dead and decaying matter. A third kind of fungi lives with other organisms and neither the fungi or the organism is hurt. This kind of relationship is called positive symbiosis.

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VIRUS Viruses are microscopic particles that attack healthy cells within living things. They do not have the characteristics of living things and are not able to metabolize food. To metabolize means to change food energy into chemical energy that the body can use. Viruses are not alive, so they do not have a need for food like living oganisms . Viruses do not have an organized cell structure. They are so light that they can float in the air or water, be passed on to other organisims if touched, and fit anywhere. Viruses invade the cells of both plants and animals. They reproduce inside healthy cells causing diseases that are hard to treat. There are no know anitibiotics or other medicines that are known to kill viruses.

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AMAZING FACTS!! Microbes first appeared on earth about 3.5 billion year ago!! Only less than 0.5% of the estimated 2 to 3 billion microbial species have been identified. Microbes generate at least half the oxygen we breathe. The human mouth is home to more than 500 species of bacteria. square centimeter of your skin averages about 100,000 bacteria. Oldest living Microbes: 250 million-year-old bacteria spores have been restored to life.

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THANK YOU!!