french revolution

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FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT 1:

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT 1 SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY BY AMAL JOBBY 9 A SANTA MARIA PUBLIC SCHOOL KOOROPPADA

The French Revolution:

The French Revolution

Causes of the French Revolution:

Causes of the French Revolution

FRANCE IN 1774:

FRANCE IN 1774 Louis XVI became the king of France at the age of 20. He belonged to the Bourbon family of kings.

PowerPoint Presentation:

King Louis was more concerned with his own personal interests than in the interests of the State and Court. Often bored with the state and court affairs, he left his work up to his advisers and ministers. He was influenced and often embarrassed by his loving wife, Marie Antoinette He was incapable of strong decisive action

MARIE ANTOINETTE:

MARIE ANTOINETTE

France Is Bankrupt:

France Is Bankrupt The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like Versailles Queen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spender Government found its funds depleted as a result of wars Including the funding of the American Revolution Deficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed

Conditions in France in 1774:

Conditions in France in 1774 France was an absolute monarchy The king was young and did not know much about state affairs The treasury was empty Taxes were paid by the third estate only but the first and second estates enjoyed all privileges There was an emerging rich and strong middle class in the third estate called bourgeoisie

Subsistence crisis:

Subsistence crisis Bad harvest Scarcity of grains Rising food prices The poorest can no longer buy bread Food riots Weaker bodies Diseases and epidemics Increased number of deaths

Conditions in France in 1774:

Conditions in France in 1774 Influence of new ideas esp. on the bourgeoisie Influence of American constitution France faced hunger due to poor harvests. This mainly affected the poor who could not afford food grains because of increased prices.

Why was the treasury empty?:

Why was the treasury empty? Wars fought by previous monarchs especially the seven years war. Court expenses American war of Independence (1775-1783)

Society under the Old Regime:

Society under the Old Regime In France, people were divided into three estates First Estate High-ranking members of the Church Privileged class Second Estate Nobility Privileged class Third Estate Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the cities Unprivileged class

Economic Conditions under the Old Regime:

Economic Conditions under the Old Regime France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation Poor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxes Certainly could not afford to have their taxes raised Bourgeoisie often managed to gather wealth But were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not

Government under the Old Regime: The Divine Right of Kings:

Government under the Old Regime: The Divine Right of Kings Monarch ruled by divine right God put the world in motion God put some people in positions of power Power is given by God No one can question God No one can question someone put in power by God Questioning the monarchy was blasphemy because it meant questioning God

The Three Estates:

The Three Estates Estate Population Privileges Exemptions Burdens First Circa 130,000 High-ranking clergy Collected the tithe Censorship of the press Control of education Kept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc. Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility) Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Subject to Church law rather than civil law Moral obligation to assist the poor and needy Support the monarchy and Old Regime Second Circa 110,000 Nobles Collected taxes in the form of feudal dues Monopolized military and state appointments Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Support the monarchy and Old Regime Third Circa 25,000,000 Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, etc., along with many parish priests None None Paid all taxes Tithe (Church tax) Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities) Corvée (forced road work) Capitation (poll tax) Vingtiéme (income tax) Gabelle (salt tax) Taille (land tax) Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.

French society: First estate: the clergy:

French society: First estate: the clergy The Clergy was established as a privileged Estate. The clergy was divided into the lower and upper clergy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Members of the lower clergy were usually humble, poorly-paid and overworked village priests. the clergy did the registration of births, marriages &deaths they collected the tithe (usually 10%); they censored books; served as moral police; operated schools and hospitals; and distributed relief to the poor. They also owned 10-15% of all the land in France and PAID NO TAXES….

The second estate: Nobles:

The second estate: Nobles The Nobility represented another privileged Estate. The nobility held the highest positions in the Church, the army and the government. They were virtually exempt from paying taxes of any kind. They collected rent from the peasant population who lived on their lands. They also collected an extraordinary amount of customary dues from the peasantry. There were labor dues (the corvee ), as well as dues on salt, cloth, bread, wine and the use mills, granaries, presses and ovens. Collectively, the nobility owned about 30% of the land.

The third estate :lower caste and peasants:

The third estate :lower caste and peasants Third estate of the French society was made up of the middle classes bourgeoisie, and lower class peasantry. The bourgeoisies consisted of merchants, manufacturers, bankers, doctors, lawyers. The peasantry peasantry continued to live in extreme poverty due to the high taxation from the upper class. They were the victims of heavy taxation since they had to pay for the cost of war, for the king, for the church, and taxes due to their lord of the manor. Since they were getting financial pressure, the peasantry wanted to limit the king’s power, also wanted liberal ideas where they could argue what is right for themselves.

PowerPoint Presentation:

What does this contemporary political cartoon say about conditions in France under the Old Regime? A  contemporary cartoon showing a peasant crushed by the levies which the monarchy and the privileged orders imposed .

New ideas:

New ideas The bourgeoisie did not believe that any group in society should be privileged by birth, but position should be based on merit. France was influenced by the ideas of JOHN LOCKE , JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU , VOLTAIRE , MONTESQUIEU and others.

John Locke:

John Locke John Locke: believed that the government should be selected by and follow the will of the people Locke argued that the state resulted from a voluntary agreement between individuals who established a sovereign power to protect them from the insecure conditions that accompanied the state of nature that existed without prior to a government and laws. Locke insists that there must be limits to political authority.

Jean Jacques Rousseau :

Jean Jacques Rousseau "Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they.“ Sovereignty should be in the hands of the people. Government should be based in a social contract between the people and their representatives,the rulers and the ruled.

Charles De Montesquieu :

Charles De Montesquieu The said political power should be divided into three branches, namely Legislature Executive and Judiciary

The American Revolution:

The American Revolution Inspired the ideas of freedom in man Inspired people to rise against

QUIZ [RULES]:

QUIZ [RULES] TOTAL 5 QUESTIONS EACH QUESTION CARRIES 1 POINT RAISE YOUR HANDS IF YOU KNOW THE ANSWER. ONLY ONE WHO RAISE THEIR HANDS 1 ST , HAS THE CHANCE. PRIZE FOR ONLY TOP SCORER DECISION OF THE QUIZ MASTER IS FINAL

QUIZ:

QUIZ 1. identify the kingdom of france.

ANSWER:

ANSWER

2.Identify Rousseau:

2.Identify Rousseau

ANSWER:

A NSWER ROUSSEAU

3.Identify the national flag of france:

3.Identify the national flag of france

ANSWER:

ANSWER FLAG OF FRANCE

4.What does the cartoon show?:

4.What does the cartoon show?

ANSWER:

ANSWER peasant crushed by the levies which the monarchy and the privileged orders imposed .

5. Identify :

5. Identify

ANSWER:

ANSWER MONTEQUIEU

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