Introduction ;Lesson 1; Lesson 2

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Cultural Context of English Speaking Countries

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Cultural Context of English-Speaking Countries( 2107320 ) ภาษาในบริบทสังคมและวัฒนธรรมของประเทศผู้ใช้ภาษาอังกฤษ 3(3-0-6)

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Course description : A study of sociological and cultural contexts of English speaking nations using various topics such as history, education, lifestyle, culture, art, politics, technology holidays and festivals etc. emphasis on relationship between language, meaning and culture.

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What is a culture? Culture is the way of life of a particular society or group of people, including patterns of thought, beliefs, behavior, customs, traditions, rituals, dress, and language, as well as art, music, and literature. (Webster’s New World Encyclopedia, 1992)

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What is a culture? Culture is a shared patterns of belief, feeling and adaptation, which people carry in their minds. (Leighton & Hughes, 1961)

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Edward Tylor Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society.

Culture :

cultural traits = ' A trait may be a custom, such as burial of the dead; a device, such as a computer; a gesture, such as a handshake; or and idea, such as democracy. Culture any way of life consists of learned ways of acting, feelings and thinking

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

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1. Culture is learned – It is acquired through education, training and experience.

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2. Culture is socially transmitted through language - It is transmitted from one generation to another through the medium of language, verbal or non-verbal through the gestures or signs, orally or in writing. ส่ง

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3. Culture is a social product - many pe ople interact with one another to develop culture. Culture is a product of social interaction through the mutual inter stimulation and response of people with one another.

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4. Culture is a source of gratification - It provides satisfaction of man's varied psychology, social, emotional and spiritual needs. อิฏฐารมณ์ satisfaction fulfillment

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5 . Culture is the distinctive way of life of a group of people. 6 . Culture is material and non-material – material culture, such as buildings and machines, are the products or outputs of the application of man's knowledge and skills, which are basically non-material. เด่น different, unique

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7 . Culture is stable yet dynamic - It is preserved and accumulated, highly stable and continuous. Culture is also changing. Culture grows and accumulates with the passing of time. active, vital constant, fixed accrue, acquire, add to

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WHY CULTURE IS IMPORTANT?

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It refers to the pattern of human activity. Culture invisible bond ties the people of a community together

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It refers to the pattern of human activity. art literature language religion community's culture

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Culture manifests itself through the lifestyle of the individuals of a community . The moral values of the people of a community also represent their culture.

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Homework: What is stereotype?Give examples. How do Americans stereotyped? How do British stereotyped?

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Week 2

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WHAT IS STEREOTYPE? “A fixed general image, characteristic, etc. that a lot of people believe to represent a particular type of person or thing.” (Collins Cobuild Dictionary )

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When someone claims that members of another culture all share the same , often inferior or offensive characteristics . STEREOTYPING

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racial gender age profession TYPES OF STEREOTYPE White people don’t have rhythm African Americans are good at basketball women are bad drivers men don’t cry old people are said to be very forgetful teachers are spinsters, bachelor politicians are corrupt actors/actress are insincere/dishonest

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Characteristics of Stereotype Views can be positive or negative Develops superiority (power) or inferiority (weakness) in the person or group Ignores the uniqueness of individuals (by painting all members of a group in with the same brush .)

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Sources of Stereotype Cultural bias Cultural ignorance Media

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EFFECTS OF STEREOTYPING ON People / GROUPS Prejudice ( chauvinism, bigotry ) Stigma ( shame,dishonor ) Discrimination ( unfairness ) Racism ( racial discrimination ) Conflict ( difference,variance )

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EXERCISES:

I. Complete the phrases.:

I. Complete the phrases. Drugs are All politicians are All people with AIDS are All male hairdressers are All male ballet dancers are All construction workers are She's so dumb, she must be She's so smart, she must be She's quick-tempered, so she must be

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African-Americans Muslims Chinese rich people Japanese poor people obese people men women II . Write down the characteristics of these groups:

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“Instead of being presented with stereotypes by age, sex, color, class, or religion, children must have the opportunity to learn that within each range, some people are loathsome (abhorrent, repugnant) and some are delightful (pleasant).” Margaret Mead, social anthropologist

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