jerusalem - past, present and future

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Sequence : 

Sequence Introduction Location General Description History Religious Importance Religious Sites Muslims Jews Christians 3

Sequence (cont…) : 

Sequence (cont…) Present Situation Israeli excavations Future of Jerusalem Conclusion Questions 4

Slide 5: 

“Whoever has not seen Jerusalem in its splendor has never seen a fine city.” Babylonian Talmud (Succah, 51b) 5

Jerusalem : 

Jerusalem Hebrew : (Yerushalayim) “Legacy of peace” “The perfect city” or “The city of he who is perfect” Arabic : (Al-Quds) “The Holy One” Officially in Israel (Urshalim-Al-Quds) 6

Location : 

Location Center of Israel 3000 years ago by King David Heart of the Biblical Israel Surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds Kidron Hinnom Tyropoeon 7

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General Description : 

General Description Capital of Israel Population : 732,100 residents Area : 126 square kilometers 4th Millennium BCE One of the oldest cities of the world One of the Holiest city in the world 9

General Description (cont…) : 

General Description (cont…) The Old City World Heritage Sites in danger Divided into four quarters Armenian Christian Jewish Muslim Sites of key religious importance 10

For Jews : 

For Jews Temple Mount Western Wall 11

For Christians : 

For Christians Church of the Holy Sepulchre 12

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Al-Aqsa Mosque For Muslims 13

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History : 

History Permanent settlement during Bronze Age Founded by Shem and Eber King David Alexander the Great Roman General Pompey Persian King Khosrau European crusaders Saladin Ayubi 16

History (cont…) : 

History (cont…) Ottoman Empire British troops took control in 1917 UN Declaration in 1947 West Jerusalem was declared capital of Israel in 1950 Israel occupies all of Jerusalem in 1967 Undivided Jerusalem was declared the eternal capital of Israel in 1980 17

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Present Day Jerusalem 19

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Al Aqsa Compound 20

Al Aqsa Mosque : 

Al Aqsa Mosque First Qibla 35 acres of land 5000 worshippers 400,000 worshippers 11 gates Four minarets Muslim Council “Waqf” Al Aqsa Intifada in 2000 21

Slide 22: 

Interior of Al Aqsa Mosque 22

Origin of Name : 

Origin of Name The farthest mosque Isra and Mi’raj Night journey of Holy Prophet PBUH From a rock, ascended to Heaven Five daily prayers The Dome of the Rock 23

History : 

History Forty years after the construction of Kaba Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) established a place of worship. The House Of Allah or Beteyel Jacob (PBUH) extended Beteyel as a place of worship for all the believers of Allah (God) in the region. David (PBUH) , Solomon (PBUH) and Zakaria (PBUH) 24

Construction : 

Construction Before Islam it was under Roman Empire Abandoned and abused area Restoration of the Mosque site by Caliph Umar bin Khatab in 637 687-691, Caliph Abd al-Malik built a shrine over the sacred rock 709-715, Caliph Al-Walid built, renovated, and expanded the mosque south of the Dome Major restorations during 14th and 20th century 25

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The Dome of the Rock 26

The Temple Mount : 

The Temple Mount First Temple or Solomon's Temple was built in the 10th century BCE Destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BCE Persian King Cyrus the Great Second Temple completed in 516 BCE During reign of Darius the Great Destroyed by Roman Empire in 70 CE 27

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Artist's Depiction of the First Temple (According to Biblical Descriptions) 28

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Destruction of Second Temple 29

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The Western Wall 30

The Western Wall : 

The Western Wall HaKotel HaMa'aravi or The Kotel Wailing Wall Holy of Holies Most Holy Place in Judaism Large outdoor synagogue Religious celebrations 31

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Jews Praying by the Western Wall 32

Holy of Holies : 

Holy of Holies Kadosh Hakadashim The most Holy place Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple were standing Use in a future Third Temple The exact location is a subject of dispute 33

Holy of Holies : 

Holy of Holies Restricted holy areas Temple Mount Dome of The Rock Only the High Priest on Yom Kippur Foundation of the universe Isaac was bound by Abraham Jacob slept and dreamed of a ladder 34

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Religious Gathering at Western Wall 35

Church of the Holy Sepulchre : 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre 36

Church of the Holy Sepulchre : 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church of the Resurrection Within the walled Old City of Jerusalem The Holiest place on Earth for Christians Golgotha Place where Jesus was crucified Place where Jesus was buried (Sepulchre) Important pilgrimage destination Headquarters of the Orthodox and the Catholic Archpriest 37

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The Tomb of Jesus Christ 38

History : 

History Constantine I in 325 Saint Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem Constantine's mother Saint Helena Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1885) 39

Church of the Holy Sepulchre : 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Damaged by fire in 614 Khosrau II invaded Jerusalem Emperor Heraclius in 630 Under the Muslims rule Riot in 966 Completely destroyed on October 18, 1009 Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim The Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre 40

Church of the Holy Sepulchre : 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Sites were taken by Knights of the First Crusade in1099 Reconstruction in the mid-12th century Renovations were completed during reign of Queen Melisende in 1149 The current dome dates from 1870 Extensive modern renovations began in 1959 Restoration of the dome from 1994–1997 41

Christian Communities : 

Christian Communities The primary custodians churches Greek Orthodox Armenian Apostolic Roman Catholic. In 19th century Coptic Orthodox Ethiopian Orthodox Syriac Orthodox Times and places of worship Main entrance to the Church 42

Present Scenario : 

Present Scenario Ministry of Religious Affairs Chief Rabbinate of Israel Council of Waqf and Muslim Affairs Patriarchs of Eastern Orthodox churches Coexistence between religious groups have predominantly been peaceful At times political instability resulted in riots and violence 43

Israeli Excavations : 

Israeli Excavations 44

Israeli excavations at Al-Aqsa Mosque : 

Israeli excavations at Al-Aqsa Mosque Archaeological project In the 1980‘s Area of Masjid Al-Aqsa They were searching for the Temple Of Solomon They were unable to locate the Temple Discovered the tunnel of King Je-hoia-chin The Israelis claimed that the search was a success 45

Israeli Excavations at Al-Aqsa Mosque : 

Israeli Excavations at Al-Aqsa Mosque Started again in 2007 Plan to rebuild the Mugrabi bridge From the Dung gate to the Mugrabi gate Primary entrance to the compound Sparked and provoked Muslims Damage to the Al Aqsa mosque and its foundation 46

Future of Jerusalem : 

Future of Jerusalem Jews not ready to leave East Jerusalem - the future capital of a Palestinian state Temple Mount Faithful Desire to rebuild the ancient Jewish Temple where Al Aqsa Mosque is standing Al Aqsa Martyr’s Brigade The future is uncertain 47

Questions ??? : 

Questions ??? 48

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