Basics of HIV AIDS

Category: Education

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Basic Information about HIV/AIDS : 

Basic Information about HIV/AIDS

India HIV/AIDS Profile : 

2 India HIV/AIDS Profile Demographically second largest country - 1.1 billion 3rd highest HIV infections - 2.47 million (after South Africa & Nigeria) Over 85% sexual transmission Concentrated epidemic, adult prevalence 0.36% (males-0.43%, females-0.29%) Epidemic driven by core groups and bridge population 140 of 611 districts report >1% ANC prevalence (15 districts >3%) (source: NACP-III) Over 60% PLHAs in 4 high prevalence states

Basics about HIV / AIDS : 

3 Basics about HIV / AIDS What is HIV/AIDS How HIV/AIDS can be transmitted How HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted People that are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS


4 HIV/AIDS H – Human I – Immuno Deficiency V – Virus A – Acquired I - Immuno D – Deficiency S - Syndrome HIV IS A VIRUS & IS AN INFECTION AIDS IS A STAGE & NOT A DISEASE

What is HIV? : 

5 What is HIV? HIV is short for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus. Once infected with HIV, a person is referred to as HIV positive. However, this does not necessarily mean that (s)he has symptoms or feels sick. An HIV positive person can feel and look healthy for a long time after first becoming infected.

What is AIDS? : 

6 What is AIDS? AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, can take many years to develop. Eventually, the virus kills or impairs more and more cells in the immune system and the body loses the ability to fight off common infections, such as diarrhea or colds. People with AIDS can die from diseases that are usually not dangerous for people with healthy immune systems.

From HIV to AIDS : 

7 From HIV to AIDS Aids is diagnosed when your CD 4 blood count is at 200 or lower and you have an opportunistic infection (i.e. Kaposi’s Sarcoma or PCP (This is a set point for medical diagnosis) A healthy blood count may range from 800 to 1200 CD4

How HIV can be transmitted : 

8 How HIV can be transmitted Unprotected sexual contact – be it vaginal, oral, or anal - with an infected partner Sharing unsterilized needles or syringes with an HIV positive person, for example, when using drugs or in a healthcare setting. During pregnancy or birth and through breastfeeding from an HIV positive mother to her baby. Blood transfusions with infected blood

Major Symptoms : 

9 Major Symptoms Loss of more than 10% of body weight Chronic diarrhea Prolonged fever

Minor Symptoms : 

10 Minor Symptoms Cough for more than a month Generalised itchy skin rash Painful group of blisters all over the body Generalised swollen lymph glands White curd like patched on tongue/throat


11 DIAGNOSIS HIV – Two major signs + one minor sign + positive blood test AIDS – Two major signs + one minor sign + AIDS specific opportunistic infection + positive blood test


12 HIV/AIDS - MYTHS There is a cure for HIV/AIDS Restricted to certain group/ community/country Sex with virgin can cure AIDS Is not a major problem in India Presence of STD is a pre requisite for HIV infection


13 HIV/AIDS – THE DIFFICULTIES Sensitive issue Non availability of true information/Data Very low level of awareness/concern Socio-economically marginalized people are the most vulnerable, who are difficult to approach they are unable to access


14 CONCENTRATION OF VIRUS Blood, Menstrual Blood – Very High Vaginal Fluids, Semen, Pre ejaculate Fluid – High Bone Marrow – High Saliva – No Sweat, Tears, urine - No

How HIV can NOT be transmitted : 

15 How HIV can NOT be transmitted Through air or by coughing and sneezing Through food or water Through sweat and tears By sharing cups, plates, and utensils with an infected person By touching, hugging and kissing an infected person By sharing clothes or shaking hands with an infected person By sharing toilets and bathrooms with an infected person By living with an infected person By mosquitoes, fleas, or other insects


16 MODES OF TRANSMISSION Blood/Blood products, tissues, organs- More than 90% Sexual Intercourse - 0.1 to 1% (however frequency is high causing high rate of infection) IDU – 0.5 to 1 % Parent to child – 30%

HIV Test : 

17 HIV Test Common Method of HIV test is - ELISA (common method of HIV test in India) Western Blot PCR

Populations particularly at risk : 

18 Populations particularly at risk A person who: Uses shared/contaminated needles and syringes Has a sexually transmitted infections(STIs) Has anal sex with her/his partner(s) Exchanges sex for money or drugs Has many sex partners Leads life separated from spouse due to professional obligations (e.g., truck drivers, laborers, migrants)

Women and HIV : 

19 Social Risk Factors Illiteracy Lack of awareness of preventive measures Biological risk factors Twice as easy for women to contract HIV from men Physiology of women (e.g., menstruation, intercourse) Pregnancy-associated conditions (e.g., anemia, hemorrhage) increase the need for blood transfusion Women and HIV

Taboo and Stigma : 

20 Taboo and Stigma Stigma derives from the association of HIV/AIDS with sex, disease and death, and with behaviours that may be illegal, forbidden or taboo, such as pre- and extramarital sex, sex work, sex between men, and injecting drug use. Stigma builds upon, and reinforces, existing prejudices.


21 PREVENTION Take blood from licensed blood bank Make sure the blood has the stamp of HIV FREE on it Avoid single unit BT Avoid sharing needles Take your own disposable syringe Safer sex practices Abstinence Delay first intercourse Less number of partners Be faithful to each other Masturbation Non penetrative sex Proper & consistent use of condom Creating awareness on HIV/AIDS and safe sex

But HIV/AIDS does not discriminate : 

22 But HIV/AIDS does not discriminate Everybody is vulnerable. The virus is not restricted to any age group, race, social class, gender, or religion. In many countries of Asia and the Pacific HIV/AIDS has spread to the general population.

No country is immune to the epidemic : 

23 No country is immune to the epidemic The HIV/AIDS epidemic can spread very quickly Low HIV prevalence rates in the general population of a country can conceal serious epidemics in smaller, high-risk groups or in certain areas The epidemic can quickly cross over from high-risk groups to the general population

Impact of HIV/AIDS : 

24 Impact of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS has an impact on all bodies responsible for planning and allocation of resources and education services such as... Schools and Universities Ministries Departments Agencies / Organisations Policy makers Religious and Faith based organizations

What the Community Leaders can and should do : 

25 What the Community Leaders can and should do The consequences of inaction There is hope Why education is crucial in the fight against HIV/AIDS Approaches to take Next steps

How to fight HIV/AIDS : 

26 How to fight HIV/AIDS Develop appropriate policies Ensure adequate planning and management Focus on prevention/awareness Reduce vulnerability Introduce or upgrade life skills education Promote a culture of compassion and care

Awareness is the only way : 

27 Awareness is the only way There are no cures or vaccines for HIV/AIDS. Currently awareness/education is the only way to prevent infection. Preventive education also means preventing stigma, denial, and discrimination. HIV/ADS is associated with sex, disease, and death, and with behaviours that may be illegal, forbidden or taboo, such as pre- and extramarital sex, sex work, sex between men, and injecting drug use. Awareness will reduce the HIV vulnerability.

Preventive step is crucial : 

28 Preventive step is crucial Research in several countries has shown that well-informed young people Delay starting sexual activity and Are more likely to protect themselves once they start having sex.

HIV Fact Sheet : 

29 HIV Fact Sheet

Slide 30: 


Thank You : 

31 Thank You

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