Basic Information about STI: Basic Information about STI STI = Sexually Transmitted Infection
RTI = Reproductive Tract Infection
UTI = Urethral Tract Infection What are STIs: What are STIs Sexually transmitted infections are mainly transmitted through sexual contact (anal, vaginal and oral)
Some STIs are transmitted through blood and other body fluids RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV/AIDS & STI/RTI: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV/AIDS & STI/RTI HIV is also an STI
More than 80% of HIV infections have acquired through sexual route
A person with RTI/STI is ten times more likely to get HIV
There is no cure of HIV, BUT other RTI/STIs can be treated
Effective and timely treatment of STD will prevent and reduce HIV transmission
When ability to fight against diseases weakened (AIDS) one can get STIs easily and it will be more difficult to treat them
STIs – HIDDEN DISEASES: STIs – HIDDEN DISEASES Asymptomatic specially in women
Fear of social rejection
Discharge considered normal in women
Labeled as LOW morals
Myths – heat, do not affect high class, use of public toilets, spicy food, sex with virgin or child can cure infection MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTION: MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTION Bestiality can cure STIs
Sex with young girls can cure STIs
Condom use against God and Religious belief
Tubectomy and Vasectomy check the transmission of STIs
Wash private part immediately after sex
Keeping sexual relations to avoid Wet Nights
Masturbation leads to impotency
One drop of semen is equal to hundred drops of Blood Types of STIs: Types of STIs Bacterial
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
HPV (Human Papillomavirus)
Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)
Symptoms and signs of STIs: Symptoms and signs of STIs Redness, swelling, and/or discharge from the infected area
Burning during urination
Itching in the genital area
Sores, rashes and/or bumps
Swollen glands in the groin
Pain during intercourse
Symptoms in The Female: Symptoms in The Female Any abnormal type of discharge from the vagina. It may be pus-like, yellow or green or smelly.
Lower abdominal pain (sometimes accompanied with fever and chills)
Vaginal bleeding between periods
Vaginal bleeding after intercourse
Slide9: Female Reproductive System Female Anatomy Fallopian tube Ovaries Uterus Cervix Vagina Fallopian tube Ovary Uterus Cervix Rectum Vagina Urethra Clitoris Bladder ?Illustrations: © 2007 GCT II Solutions and Enterprises Ltd. Symptoms in the Male: Symptoms in the Male Any discharge from the penis
(watery / milky / thick yellow / green)
Pain or swelling in the testicles
An itchy feeling inside the penis
Slide11: Male Reproductive System Male Anatomy ?Illustrations: © 2007 GCT II Solutions and Enterprises Ltd. Seminal vesicles Vas deferens Prostate gland Penis Epididymis Testicle Every Case is Different : Every Case is Different Many STIs are asymptomatic. Often, the only way to detect an infection is through screening.
Individuals who suspect they may have been infected should be encouraged to seek medical attention immediately, rather than waiting for the onset of visible symptoms.
Slide13: Pubic lice Scabies Scabies Pubic lice Pubic lice SECONDARY SYPHILIS Pink, Red Rashes, PRIMARY SYPHILIS
Single, Painless Ulcer Chancroid
Multiple, Soft, Painful, Ulcers, Bleeds on Touch
Burning, Pus Discharge, Pain in Lower Abdomen and Backache
Genital WartRed Cauliflower/lesions
Vaginal Discharge Neonatal Conjunctivitis Precautions: Precautions Once an infection is detected, it is recommended that infected individuals and their sexual partner(s) abstain from sexual activity until treatment is complete (for treatable STIs), symptoms have subsided, and the infection is cured (for curable STIs, confirmed through follow-up testing, as appropriate).
Partners should consult a health professional for direction on when sexual relations can be resumed. In the case of viral STIs, a health care provider can offer safer-sex and risk-reduction tips to prevent transmission.
Condoms are important to reduce the risk of transmission, even if other methods of birth control are being used to prevent pregnancy.
Slide15: Diagnosing Sexually Transmitted Infections Testing Methods ?* Individuals infected with high-risk HPV types usually have no noticeable symptoms even though the virus may be causing changes at a cellular level. Currently, cervical cancer screening (primarily the Pap smear) is used to detect cellular changes in the cervix that may progress to cancer if not found early and treated if necessary. In some regions, HPV DNA testing is available and used in conjunction with the Pap test in cervical cancer screening. www.sexualityandu.ca STI Diagnostic Method
Chlamydia Swab from the infected area.
Urine sample for men; urine sample for women
where available, when a pelvic exam is not done or indicated
Gonorrhea Swab from the infected area or a urine sample in
cases where a swab is not an option
Syphilis Blood sample and/or swab from the sore
Genital Herpes Swab from sore(s) and/or a blood test (currently not widely
HPV* Physical exam for visible warts
Pap test to detect abnormal cells in the cervix
Hepatitis B Blood test
HIV Blood test
Trichomoniasis Physical examination and vaginal swab
Lice/Crabs/Scabies Examination of skin and hair
Yeast Infection Physical examination and vaginal swab Consequences of Untreated STIs: Consequences of Untreated STIs Untreated STIs have serious consequences, such as sterility or infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and cancer , blindness and even death
Having an STI increases your risk of acquiring HIV due to the presence of open ulcers or sores which allows viral entry
Building Awareness: Building Awareness One of the primary defenses in the fight against STIs is awareness. With the right information, individuals can make informed choices and better protect themselves and their partners.
Thank You: Thank You