activated carbon

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

activated carbon

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Activated Carbon:

Activated Carbon Presented by Katiyar bipin sarvesh Alok kr vishwakarma Dept of pharmaceutics Psit,kanpur

History of Activated Carbon:

History of Activated Carbon First described used over 3500 years ago for medicinal purposes ( 1550 B.C. in an ancient Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder) In the 18th century, crude carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for the purification of liquids

Slide 3:

In the 19 th century, crude AC made from bone char (powder) was used to de-colorize sugar (mostly calcium phosphate with only a small % of carbon). Early 20 th century, processes were developed to steam activated powdered char for taste and odor removal in water.

Slide 4:

What is Activated Carbon? Activated Carbon is a crude form of graphite and generic term used to describe a family of carbonaceous adsorbents possessing a highly crystalline form and extensively developed internal pore structure.

Slide 5:

What is Activated Carbon? This unique structure of Activated Carbon produces a very large surface area: 1 lb. of Granular Activated Carbon produces a surface area of 125 acres (1 kg = 1,000,000 meters 2 ; 1000 m 2 /g)

Slide 6:

Activated Carbon can be produced from a wide variety of carbonaceous raw materials including: Bituminous Coal Coconut Shells Wood Lignite Coal Peat, Olive Pits, etc.

Slide 7:

The choice of raw material has a large influence on the characteristics and performance of the AC, each producing an AC with differing surface areas, total pore volume, pore radius and pore volume distribution

Slide 8:

Activation The raw materials are first carbonized via a controlled heating process at “low” temperatures (200 - 300  C) in an oxygen-lean environment which keeps the material from burning. This process converts the raw material into a disordered carbon structure full of tiny pores.

Slide 9:

The carbonized materials are then activated by steam (or chemical treatment). Steam activation is carried out at high temperatures (982  C) and the carbonized materials react with the steam to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen which exit as gases leaving behind a highly porous activated carbon material.

Slide 10:

RE-Activation The adsorptive capacity of any AC is exhausted eventually. After carbon becomes used up (pore spaces filled), it can be partially reactivated w/ high temperature steam Very expensive but is done in the municipal drinking water industry

Slide 11:

The Three Types/Forms of AC Pelleted / Extruded Granular Powdered

Slide 12:

Measuring Adsorptive Properties Molasses Number / Decolorizing Efficiency Higher number, better performance with large molecule contaminants

Slide 13:

Measuring Adsorptive Properties* Iodine Number This test measures very small pores A high number indicates good performance on small-sized contaminants Tannin Value Tastes & odors; low number good Butane Activity (formerly CCl 4 ) Vapor phase only

Slide 14:

Choosing the correct type of AC: Different purification goals require different activated carbon properties. There are >150 types of carbon available

Slide 15:

Choosing the correct type of AC: “There are no valid theories that allow selection of the best activated carbon in any single case without experimentation” “It should be mentioned that the mechanisms by which activated carbon removes organic matter from water are unclear”

Slide 16:

AQUARIUM USES FOR CARBON: Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal Chemotherapeutants Proteins (yellow color; non-ozonated systems) Organic acids, carbohydrates, hormones, etc. Oxidant Removal Chlorine / Chloramine from drinking water Ozone byproducts

Slide 17:

Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal Activated Carbon removes organic compounds from water via physical a d sorption

Slide 18:

What is A d sorption? Organic molecules bond to the internal pores of activated carbon

Slide 19:

What is A d sorption? Adsorbates are held on the activated carbon pore wall surface by weak electrostatic forces (van der Waal’s forces)

Slide 20:

“Adsorption is a fight against solubility” The more soluble a substance, the less likely it is to be adsorbed. Variables such as temperature, adsorbate concentration (lower better) and pH affect both solubility of the adsorbate and the adsorption by the activated carbon.

Slide 21:

The AC surface is non-polar which makes non-polar organic molecules most readily adsorbed. Will not adsorb salts Will not adsorb alcohols Presence of biofilms can affect adsorption

Slide 22:

Oxidant Removal Activated Carbon removes oxidants (Chlorine & Chloramine) from water via reactions, not adsorption

Slide 23:

Class: Antidote How it works: binds to poisons, toxins, irritants, increases adsorption in GI tract, inactivates toxins and binds to them until excreted in feces Indications: Poisonings Contraindications: unconsciousness, semi- consciousness, specific oral antidote for the ingested material Side Effects: Nausea, black stools, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea. Routes of Administration: Oral Dosage: 1g-2g/kg Special Considerations: Inactivates syrup of ipecac and other antidotes, poisoning of cyanide, minerals acids, alkalis

Nitroglycerine:

Nitroglycerine Classification: Coronary vasodilator, antianginal How it works: dilates coronary arteries, improves blood flow through coronary vasculature. Onset: 1 minute, half-life 4 minutes Indications: chest pain suspected to be cardiac in nature Contraindications: Patient is taking cialais, levitra, viagra, revatio, sildenafil, tadalafil, danafil, gildanafil Side effects: hypotension, headache, flushing, dizziness, burning under the tongue. Route of Administration: sublingual Dose: 0.4mg every 3-4 minutes, or what medical direction tells you How supplied: 0.4mg tablets Must call medical control.

Oxygen:

Oxygen Classification: naturally occurring element How it works: binds with hemoglobin, transported in the red blood cells, released in the capillary beds to body tissue. Indications: almost any patient, chest pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, anxiety, major trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning etc. Contraindications: none Side effects: May suppress the respiratory drive in patients with COPD Route of administration: inhalation Low Flow – 1-2 Liters per minute Patients with chronic lung disease Moderate Flow – 4-6 liters per minute Precautionary for trauma, chest pain High Flow – 10-15 liters per minute Severe respiratory distress How supplied: compressed oxygen tanks.

Oral Glucose:

Oral Glucose Classification: caloric How it works: food for the brain Provides a quickly absorbed form of glucose to increase blood glucose levels Indications: acute hypoglycemia – blood glucose lower than 80 mg/dl Contraindications: hyperglycemia, decreased level of consciousness, active vomiting Special Considerations: Delirium tremens Side Effects: Hyperglycemia, short duration – pt must be given food high in carbohydrates as soon as possible Route of Administration: PO Dosage: 15-30 grams How supplied: 15 grams per tube

authorStream Live Help