8D Problem Solving by Operational Excellence Consulting

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© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8D: Eight Disciplines PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives Understand the 8D problem solving process Describe the objective of each step of the 8D process Understand how to use the problem solving tools in the 8D process Define the roles of the 8D problem solving team Define the critical success factors for effective 8D problem solving Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners. NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW . To download the complete presentation, please visit: http:// www.oeconsulting.com.sg

Contents:

Contents Introduction to 8D Problem Solving Roles of 8D Problem Solving Team 8D Problem Solving Process – The Step by Step Approach 8D Problem Solving Tools Critical Success Factors

What is 8D Problem Solving?:

What is 8D Problem Solving? 8D (8 Disciplines) is a systematic approach for solving problems. It was developed by the US Department of Defense and popularized by Ford Motor Company. Ford later renamed the process as Global 8D or G8D . 8D is now a standard in the auto industry. Ford uses the 8D Process to help teams deal with quality control and safety issues systematically.

Benefits of 8D Problem Solving:

Benefits of 8D Problem Solving Increased customer satisfaction Increased market share Lower costs Faster delivery time Increased profitability Increased efficiency Improved morale

Overview of the 8D Problem Solving Process:

Overview of the 8D Problem Solving Process Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

What is a Problem Solving Team?:

What is a Problem Solving Team? A problem s olving t eam is a group of employees performing similar or related tasks, who get together on a regular basis, to discuss a topic or theme affecting their work or workplace. A problem solving team may be set up by management to look into an issue faced by the customer with the aim to resolve it and prevent similar problems from happening in the future.

Role of the Champion:

Role of the Champion Is the project owner or sponsor Selects the team leader Has authority to make changes Makes resources available to the team Removes barriers faced by the team Challenges and/or supports team decisions Creates an environment for empowerment of the team

8D Problem Solving Team’s Maxims:

8D Problem Solving Team’s Maxims Don’t blame others Describe not judge Speak with facts and data Concentrate on the vital few and not the trivial many Build on proposals or ideas Recognize that feelings affect team meetings Treat the next process as your customer

Importance of an 8D Report :

Importance of an 8D Report The 8D report or storyboard serves as a checklist as well as a means of tracking improvement measures decided upon by the team. It also ensures that all steps are followed and completed. The 8D report is a fundamental part of the 8D problem solving methodology and must be updated at the end of each step.

Discipline 0: Plan:

Discipline 0: Plan Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

Breakthrough Thinking Needed:

Breakthrough Thinking Needed “ If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail.” - Benjamin Franklin

D0: Plan:

D0: Plan Before you start to assemble a team to solve the problem, it is important to plan your approach. Your 8D project plan is vital to a successful start to the whole process. You will need to consider: who will be on the team what your time frame is what resources you will require

D0: Example of Project Plan:

7 Aug 14 Aug 21 Aug 28 Aug 4 Sep 11 Sep 18 Sep 25 Sep 1 Oct 8 Oct 15 Oct 22 Oct 29 Oct D0: Plan D1: Establish the team D2: Describe the problem D3: Develop interim containment action D4: Define & verify root cause D5: Choose & verify permanent corrective action D6: Implement & validate permanent corrective action D7: Prevent recurrence D8: Recognize the team D0: Example of Project Plan 8D Project Schedule

Discipline 1: Establish the Team:

Discipline 1: Establish the Team Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

D1: Establish the Team:

D1: Establish the Team In step 1, the aim is to form a team with the right people: those with knowledge of the area or process in question, those willing, capable and competent to do the task .

D1: Establish the Team:

D1: Establish the Team Address the problem with the team. Ensure that the team comprise the right people with the proper know-how of the processes , technical areas and techniques used. You can also nominate extended team members who could join in the meeting whenever their inputs are required.

Discipline 2: Describe the Problem:

Discipline 2: Describe the Problem Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

D2: Describe the Problem:

D2: Describe the Problem It is said that a well defined problem is a half-solved problem . It is important to state the problem clearly, accurately and as completely as possible, supported by data.

D2: Describe the Problem:

D2: Describe the Problem Whenever possible define the problem in terms of the requirements that are not being met. This will add a reference to the condition that should be and is not. What will be the impact if the problem is not solved? What benefits can be expected when the problem is solved?

D2: Examples of Problem Statements:

D2: Examples of Problem Statements Customers in the Northern region are dissatisfied with the ordering service. During the past three months, errors have increased by 23% while complaints from the other regions have remained stable in the same period. Since the rationalization of the patient registration services, complaints of long waiting times have increased by 35% when the patient traffic has increased by only 7 %.

D2: Summary of Key Steps:

D2: Summary of Key Steps Collect and visualize available data. Define the process. Allocate the data or information to the various steps of the process. Assess if the problem needs to be re-scoped or broken into smaller components. Define the boundaries of the problem. Carry out a problem analysis. Get confirmation by the customer. Update the 8D report.

Discipline 4: Define & Verify Root Cause:

Discipline 4: Define & Verify Root Cause Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

Why Get to the Root?:

Why Get to the Root? “When we fail to grasp the systemic source of problems, we are left to ‘push on’ symptoms rather than eliminate underlying causes . - Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline

D4: Define & Verify Root Cause:

D4: Define & Verify Root Cause Start out by collecting as much data/information as possible and making it visual in any way possible . Some useful tools for analyzing the problem are: Process mapping or flow charting Graphs Control charts Trend or Run charts Pareto diagrams

D4: Define & Verify Root Cause:

D4: Define & Verify Root Cause Problem symptom (is what you see as a problem) Cause(s) of the problem below the surface you are unable to see and need to verify

D4: Summary of Key Steps:

D4: Summary of Key Steps Collect and visualize available data. Check the team suitability for the purpose. If further data/information is needed, go back to D2. Identify possible causes. Identify the most probable cause(s). Verify the root cause(s). Identify possible measures and alternatives. Update the 8D report.

Discipline 7: Prevent Recurrence:

Discipline 7: Prevent Recurrence Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0

D7: Prevent Recurrence:

D7: Prevent Recurrence It is often said that prevention is better than cure. The aim of step 7 is to prevent the original problem from occurring again.

Examples of Visual Management (2):

Examples of Visual Management (2) Hazardous areas or equipment Use a black and yellow striped marking as a border around any area or piece of equipment where employees may be inadvertently exposed to a special hazard. The black and yellow border indicates that special caution should be exercised when entering and working in the area. Source: Brady 50 Lean Visuals Pocketbook Point-of-need safe work instructions Hazard warnings and safe work instructions should be posted at the point of need - right where the hazard exists for your employees. Safety and fire protection equipment floor markings Use red and white striped floor tape to mark off the areas in front of safety equipment and firefighting equipment that must be kept clear, per OSHA requirements.

Examples of Mistake-Proofing (1):

Examples of Mistake-Proofing (1) Positive stop An example of a positive stop is on machinery that requires operators to perform a safety task before starting the machinery. To activate the power to the machine, the operator must first close the hood. Other examples include blenders , washers and microwaves that stop when their door is opened to prevent operator injury or damage to the equipment. Go/No-go Turnstiles are commonly used in subways to regulate the flow of human traffic, especially during peak hours. As a “go/no go” or “pass/fail” device, it prevents defects by determining if a feature is present or not. At airports, go/no-go luggage gauges ensure that carry-on luggage can fit into the overhead compartments o r under the seat. Tool boards Missing tools and tools lying around the workplace are challenges faced by maintenance and engineering staff. With a tool board, available tools can be easily accessed and tools after being used can be returned to their designated locations. As a visual display, any tool which is missing, in the wrong slot or being used can be easily noticed.

8D Problem Solving Tools :

8D Problem Solving Tools In this section, you will find some useful tools for measuring and analyzing the problem. It is not necessary to use all the tools listed in this section for every problem you encounter. Use appropriate tools in the appropriate steps. Tools must add to understanding of the problem, not confusion.

Brainstorming:

Brainstorming

Brainstorming:

Brainstorming Purpose To creatively generate new ideas When to use When new ideas are required To generate a large list of possibilities When problem is “blur” and many people are involved For binding teams together (creative synergy)

Brainstorming Considerations:

Brainstorming Considerations Make sure everyone understands and is satisfied with the central question before you open up for ideas. You may want to give everyone a few seconds to jot down a few ideas before getting started. Begin by going around the table or room, giving everyone a chance to voice their ideas or pass. After a few rounds, open the floor. More ideas are better. Encourage radical ideas and piggybacking. Suspend judgment of all ideas. Record exactly what is said. Clarify only after everyone is out of ideas. Don't stop until ideas become sparse. Allow for late-coming ideas. Eliminate duplicates and ideas that aren't relevant to the topic.

Cause & Effect Diagram:

Cause & Effect Diagram

Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Diagram):

Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Diagram) Purpose To identify and structure the causes of a given effect When to use When investigating a problem, to identify and select key problem causes to address When effect of a problem is known, but possible causes are unclear To find other causal relationships, such as potential risks or causes of desired effects

Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing):

Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) Effect Causes Problem Statement why cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment)

How to Construct a Cause & Effect Diagram:

How to Construct a Cause & Effect Diagram Develop and agree on a problem statement (effect) Brainstorm a list of possible causes; remove symptoms and solutions related to the stated effect Identify major categories of causes (e.g. Man, Machines, Material, Method, Measurement, Environment) Place each cause in a category (same cause can occur in several category) Ask “Why does this happen?” for each cause Design data collection strategy to verify and prioritize main causes

Critical Success Factors:

Critical Success Factors Choose the right team Accurate description of the problem Avoid skipping through steps Ensure cooperation within the team Maintain momentum Ensure management support Understand the difference between possible causes and the real cause

About Operational Excellence Consulting:

About Operational Excellence Consulting

About Operational Excellence Consulting:

About Operational Excellence Consulting Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. The firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. OEC takes a unique “beyond the tools” approach to enable clients develop internal capabilities and cultural transformation to achieve sustainable world-class excellence and competitive advantage. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg

To download this presentation, please visit us at: www.oeconsulting.com.sg:

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