Training Within Industry (TWI) by Allan Ung


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Training Within Industry (TWI) - Improve shopfloor productivity and safety with the 4-step systematic approach to Job Instruction (JI), Job Methods (JM) and Job Relations (JR). For more information, please visit:


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Training Within Industry (TWI):

Allan Ung Managing Consultant Training Within Industry (TWI)

Brief History of TWI:

Brief History of TWI Established in August 1940 by National Defense Advisory Committee TWI content was developed and supported by leading specialists, manufacturing companies and union representatives TWI focused on producing safely, quickly, correctly, and conscientiously Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners.

Brief History of TWI:

Brief History of TWI Managers and supervisors were coached in three core skill areas Instruction Improvement Leadership Initial group of over 600 client companies reported productivity improvements of over 25% Toyota adopted TWI since 1951 to train their employees in the Toyota Production System

Tactical Lean loses its impact over time because people do not sustain the changes:

Tactical Lean loses its impact over time because people do not sustain the changes Time Event #1 Event #2 What Standard should be Maintenance Maintenance Event #3 Work Standard What Standard should be Output What actually becomes the Standard when people do not sustain the changes

TWI – The Countermeasure :

TWI – The Countermeasure TWI provides a systematic approach to sustain changes and continuously improve by: Shows respect for people by treating each person as an individual Creates ownership for people to maintain standard work Indoctrinates people into an “improvement” frame of mind Teaches people how to identify opportunities for improving their jobs Shows people how to get these ideas into practice right away

TWI - The Missing Link to Lean & Kaizen:

TWI - The Missing Link to Lean & Kaizen Time Innovation New Standard What the Standard becomes Maintain the Standard TWI JI & JR Current Work Standard Gradually Improve the Standard, TWI JM & JR Next Innovation Productive Potential of Underutilized People Output

What is TWI?:

What is TWI? TWI or Training Within Industry is a Leadership Development Program designed to provide supervisors and team leaders with the ability to lead , instruct and improve the methods of their jobs.

What is TWI?:

What is TWI? Is a time-proven program which uses a learn-by-doing approach to teach essential skills to supervisors from all types of industries Roots of Lean Manufacturing – It is a foundation to Toyota’s success in continuous improvement, standard work and more importantly, in its ability to sustain those improvements Key to building up continuous improvement culture Developed to improve the skills of front line supervisors

Components of TWI:

Components of TWI All components consists of 4-Steps

TWI Industry Program:

TWI Industry Program Job Instruction Training (JI) Teaches supervisors how to quickly train employees to do a job correctly, safely, and conscientiously Job Methods Training (JM) Teaches supervisors how to continuously improve the way jobs are done Job Relations Training (JR) Teaches supervisors how to evaluate and take proper actions to handle and to prevent people problems

Benefits of TWI:

Benefits of TWI Get more done with less machines and manpower Improve quality, reduce scrap by achieving standard work across workers and shifts Reduce safety incidents Decrease training time, especially for temporary workers Reduce labor hours Reduce grievances Transfer knowledge from a skilled workforce to an unskilled or green workforce Companies that have implemented TWI have reported improvements of 25% and more in increased production, reduced training time, reduced scrap and reduced labor-hours.

TWI – A Timeless Training Approach :

TWI – A Timeless Training Approach A simple program Uses a blueprinted procedure Learn by doing Multipliers spread the training

1. A Simple Program Based on a 4-Step Learning Process:

1. A Simple Program Based on a 4-Step Learning Process Make the learner think to aid comprehension of the new idea Add the new idea to those already in the learner’s mind Train the learner to apply what was presented and check results Test the ability of the learner to apply the new idea alone

2. Blueprinted Procedure :

2. Blueprinted Procedure Each program has a similar 4-Step Method The method is stated in shop terms , not in academic language Each participant must use the method to solve a current problem in class to get immediate use and acceptance

3. “Learn by Doing”:

3. “Learn by Doing” The TWI approach is not a matter of schools or classes or lessons – It is individual and/or group work on current day problems of output, quality, lost-time, scrap, rework, maintenance, and working relations

4. Multipliers Spread the Training:

4. Multipliers Spread the Training The TWI Program utilizes a standard method to: Train people from industry to become TWI Trainers TWI Trainers train the people who direct the work of others (supervisors, team leaders, managers, etc.) Supervisors spread the training to other people in the workplace by involving them as required in the process

The 4-Step Method:

The 4-Step Method Charles Allen 4-Step Learning Process TWI PDCA Cycle Scientific Method Job Instruction Job Methods Job Relations Preparation Prepare the Worker Breakdown the Job Get the Facts Plan – observe data and reality; decide on a problem; define it Observation and Description Presentation Present the Operation Question Every Detail Weigh & Decide Do – Analyze the problem; propose a countermeasure Formulation of an Hypothesis Application Try Out Performance Develop New Method Take Action Check – Try the countermeasure; check the results Use the Hypothesis to make Predictions Testing Follow Up Apply New Method Check Results Act – if successful, standardize change; if not, start the cycle over Test the Predictions by Experiments TWI is simply applied scientific method!

Who is a Supervisor?:

Who is a Supervisor? A supervisor is defined as anyone who is in a position of supervision or who directs the work of others Who is considered a supervisor in TWI? A supervisor, team leader, manager or trainer

5 Needs of Good Supervisors (Leadership Qualities in Production) :

5 Needs of Good Supervisors (Leadership Qualities in Production) Knowledge of work e.g. how we do things Knowledge of responsibility e.g. what we need to do by when Leadership behavior & motivation e.g. why we do things this way Skill in improvement e.g. how can we do this better Teaching ability how to pass along our skills to others

Job Instruction (JI):

Job Instruction (JI)

Objective of Job Instruction (JI):

Objective of Job Instruction (JI) Develop a well-trained workforce resulting in Less scrap and rework Fewer accidents Less tool and equipment damage

Results from JI Training:

Results from JI Training Reduced training time Increased production Fewer accidents Less scrap Less rework Less tool and equipment damage Increased job satisfaction Improved quality Increased profits

The 4-Step Job Instruction Method:

The 4-Step Job Instruction Method Step 1 – Prepare the Worker Step 2 – Present the Operation (Instructor) Step 3 – Try-out Performance (Learner) Step 4 – Follow-Up

Job Instruction Card:

Job Instruction Card JOB INSTRUCTION CARD HOW TO INSTRUCT STEP 1 – PREPARE THE WORKER Put the person at ease State the job Find out what the person already knows Get the person interested in learning the job Place the person in the correct position STEP 2 – PRESENT THE OPERATION Tell, show and illustrate - one Important Step at a Time Do it again – stress Key Points and Reasons Instruct clearly, completely, and patiently giving no more than they can master at one time STEP 3 – TRY OUT PERFORMANCE Have the person do the job – stating IMPORTANT STEPS – correct errors Have the person do the job again – explaining KEY POINTS and REASONS Make sure the person understands Continue until YOU know THEY know STEP 4 – FOLLOW UP Put the person on their own Who to go to for help Check frequently Encourage questions Taper off extra coaching and close follow-up IF THE PERSON HASN’T LEARNED THE INSTRUCTOR HASN’T TAUGHT JOB INSTRUCTION CARD How to Get Ready to Instruct Before instructing people on how to do a job: 1. HAVE A TRAINING TIME TABLE Determine who to train… On what tasks … By what date . 2. BREAK DOWN THE JOB List important steps Pick out key points and reasons Safety is always a key point 3. HAVE EVERYTHING READY Have the right equipment, tools, materials and supplies – everything needed to instruct 4. ARRANGE THE WORK AREA Just as in actual working conditions

Job Methods (JM):

Job Methods (JM)

Objective of Job Methods (JM):

Objective of Job Methods (JM) Make the best use of the people, machines, and materials now available

Results from JM Training:

Results from JM Training Reduced cost Reduced WIP Reduced inventory Increased throughput Increased sales Increased profits Continuous improvement

The 4-Step Method for JM:

The 4-Step Method for JM Breakdown the Job Question Every Detail Develop the New Method Apply the New Method

Job Methods Card:

Job Methods Card JOB METHODS CARD HOW TO IMPROVE Purpose: A practical plan to help you produce greater quantities of quality products in less time, by making the best use of manpower, machines, and materials now available. STEP 1 – BREAK DOWN THE JOB 1. List all details of the job exactly as done by the present method 2. Be sure details include all: Material handling Machine work Hand work STEP 2 – QUESTION EVERY DETAIL 1. Use these types of questions: Why is it necessary? What is its purpose? Where should it be done? When should it be done? Who is best qualified to do it? How is the best way to do it? 2. Also question the materials, machines, produce design, layout, work place, safety, house keeping STEP 3 – DEVELOP THE NEW METHOD 1. Eliminate unnecessary details 2. Combine details when practical 3. Rearrange for better sequence 4. Simplify all necessary details Make the work easier and safer Pre-position materials, tools, and equipment at the best places in the proper work area Use gravity feed hoppers and drop delivery chutes Let both hands do useful work Use jigs and fixtures instead of hands for holding work 5. Work out your ideas with others 6. Write up your proposed new method STEP 4 – APPLY THE METHOD 1. Sell your proposal to the boss 2. Sell the new method to the operators 3. Get final approval of all concerned on safety, quality, quantity, cost 4. Put the new method to work. Use it until a better way is developed. 5. Give proper credit where due

Job Relations (JR):

Job Relations (JR)

Objective of Job Relations (JR):

Objective of Job Relations (JR) Build positive employee relations by effectively resolving conflicts that arise Maintain positive relations by preventing problems from happening

Results from JR Training:

Results from JR Training Better employee relations Improved morale Fewer grievances Improved attendance Less equipment damage Improved quality Increased production Reduced cost

The 4-Step Method for JR:

The 4-Step Method for JR Step 1 – Get the Facts Step 2 – Weigh and Decide Step 3 – Take Action Step 4 – Check Results

Foundations for Good Relations:

Foundations for Good Relations Let each worker know how he is getting along Give credit when due Tell people in advance about changes that affect them Make best use of each person’s ability

Job Relations Card:

Job Relations Card JOB RELATIONS CARD A supervisor gets results through people FOUNDATIONS FOR GOOD RELATIONS 1. Let each worker know how he is doing Figure out what you expect from him Point out ways to improve 2. Give credit when due Look for extra or unusual performance Tell him while “it’s hot” 3. Tell people in advance about changes that will affect them Tell them WHY if possible Get them to accept change 4. Make best use of each person’s ability Look for ability not now being used Never stand in a person’s way People Must Be Treated As Individuals HOW TO HANDLE A PROBLEM SET A GOAL 1. GET THE FACTS - Review the record - Find out what rules and customs apply - Talk with individuals concerned - Get opinions and feelings Be sure to have the whole story 2. WEIGH AND DECIDE - Fit the facts together - Consider their bearing on each other - What possible actions are there? - Check practices and policies - Consider objective and effect on individual, group, and production. Don’t jump to conclusions 3. TAKE ACTION - Are you going to handle this yourself - Do you need help in handling? - Should you refer this to your supervisor? - Watch the timing of your actions Don’t shirk responsibility 4. CHECK RESULTS - How soon will you follow up? - How often will you need to check? - Watch for changes in output, attitudes, and relationships. Did your action help production? Have you achieved the set goal?

TWI – An Integrated Continuous Improvement System:

TWI – An Integrated Continuous Improvement System

TWI & Toyota & You:

TWI & Toyota & You “You will not become lean only by doing TWI, but you will not become lean without doing TWI .” - 大野耐一 ( Taiichi Ohno )

Various organizations have benefited from our TWI training:

Various organizations have benefited from our TWI training "After your lecture, we appointed some of them to Leaders. They worked well and organized another workers well.  And this area's performance not only productivity but also safety, is better than I expected. Thank you for your TWI." - Hiroyuki Nakamura Plant Director NSG GROUP

To discuss how we can help you in TWI Training, please contact us::

To discuss how we can help you in TWI Training , please contact us: Allan Ung Managing Consultant Operational Excellence Consulting (65) 6787 8246

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