# ANALOG AND DIGITAL DATA

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### ANALOG AND DIGITAL DATA:

ANALOG AND DIGITAL DATA

### OBJECTIVES :

OBJECTIVES To know what is an analog and digital data State the difference between analog and digital data Explain the need for conversion between analog and digital data

### What is an Analog Data?:

What is an Analog Data? Data represented in a continuous form, as contrasted with digital data having discrete values . Data that is recorded in a form that is similar to its original structure.

### What is a Digital Data?:

What is a Digital Data? Data that are electromagnetically stored in the form of discrete digits. Data in digital form. All data in the computer is in digital form.

### Analog and Digital Data:

Data can be analog or digital. Analog data are continuous and take continuous values. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values . Analog and Digital Data

### Analog and Digital Signals:

Analog and Digital Signals Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range. Digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

Comparison of analog and digital signals

### Examples of analog and digital devices:

Examples of analog and digital devices Digital beam balance Digital clock Beam balance clock

### PowerPoint Presentation:

Analog vs Digital

### Differences between Analog and Digital data:

Differences between Analog and Digital data Analog data are continuous and take continuous values. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values. Digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

### Analog to Digital Converter [ADC] & Digital to Analog Converter [DAC] :

Analog to Digital Converter [ADC ] & Digital to Analog Converter [ DAC ]

### Analog to Digital data [ADC]:

Analog to Digital data [ADC] Signals in the real world are analog: light, sound, etc.. So, real-world signals must be converted into digital, using a circuit called ADC(Analog-to-Digital Converter),for example: When you scan a picture with a scanner what the scanner is doing is an analog-to-digital conversion: it is taking the analog information provided by the picture (light) and converting into digital. When you record your voice or use a VoIP solution on your computer, you are using an analog-to-digital converter to convert your voice, which is analog, into digital information.

### Analog to Digital data [ADC]:

Analog to Digital data [ADC] Digital information isn’t only restricted to computers, for example : When you talk on the phone your voice is converted into digital line, or at you home, if you use a digital line since your voice is analog and the communication between the phone switches is done digitally. When an audio CD is recorded at a studio, once again analog-to-digital conversion is taking place, converting sounds into digital numbers that will be stored on the disc.

### Digital to Analog data [DAC]:

Digital to Analog data [DAC ] Whenever we need the analog signal back, the opposite conversion i.e. digital-to-analog, which is done by a circuit called DAC, Digital-to-Analog Converter is needed, for example: When you play an audio CD, what the CD player is doing is reading digital information stored on the disc and converting it back to analog so you can hear the music. When you are talking on the phone, a digital-to-analog conversion is also taking place when you can hear what the other party is saying.

### A CONTROL SYSTEM:

A CONTROL SYSTEM An example-An Automatic Sprinkler System An automatic water sprinkler system has been ordered by a farmer. The system must have sensors that detect dry weather and turn on water sprinklers to water valuable crops. The company manufacturing the system have decided that a starting point is to think in terms of INPUT - PROCESS - OUTPUT and also include FEEDBACK.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

INPUT : How will the dryness of the soil be sensed? Perhaps an electrode can be used. PROCESS : What device(s) will be needed to control the output? A computer could monitor incoming data and control the output, a simple program will be required. OUTPUT : This may be a sprinkler device which is turned on when the computer detects the need for water. FEEDBACK : Feedback is constant as the computer continually checks the moisture level of the soil

### PowerPoint Presentation:

The moisture sensor detects when the soil is dry. The Darlington pair is a simple electronic device that amplifies the signal sent by the sensors so that the computer can read it. Without the Darlington pair it is possible that the signal from the sensor could be too weak to be read by the computer. This would mean that the sprinkler system would not be turned on. When the sensor determines that the soil is moist/damp the signal to the computer ends and the computer turns off the sprinkler. This is called FEED BACK.

### This is why we need ADC & DAC:

This is why we need ADC & DAC

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