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Conditionals I, II, and III:

Conditionals I, II, and III (A Review)

IF and THEN Clauses:

IF and THEN Clauses Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses. Examples: If I go into town tomorrow, then I will see a movie. If he spoke Chinese, then he would work as a guide in China. If they had been faster, then they would have won the race.

IF Clauses (the condition):

IF Clauses (the condition) IF clauses present the condition. Examples: If I go into town tomorrow… If he spoke Chinese… If they had been faster…

THEN Clauses (the results):

THEN Clauses (the results) THEN clauses present the results. Examples: … then I will see a movie. …. then he would work as a guide in China. … then they would have won the race.

IF and THEN Clauses:

IF and THEN Clauses The word “ then ” is optional, but the clause is still the result of the condition. So it is a “ THEN ” clause, without the word “ then .” There are special rules for leaving out the word “ if ”. We will learn them later.

Remember::

Remember: The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are: will, won’t, would, wouldn’t Example: If we will see it, we will be angry.

Conditional I (present/future – possible):

Conditional I (present/future – possible) When something is possible now or in the future Form: If ( present ) then will V . Example: If she studies , she will pass the geography test. (It is possible !!)

Unless:

Unless Unless = if not Example: If we do n’t finish soon, we will miss the train. Unless we finish soon, we will miss the train.

Temporals:

Temporals Temporals are time expressions. (Examples: before, until, after, by the time, etc.) When they refer to the future, they are like Conditional I: Temporal (present), will V. Examples: Until he arrives , I will read a book. They will make a cake before they go .

Conditional II (present/future – impossible):

Conditional II (present/future – impossible) When something is NOT possible now, or in the future. Form: If ( past ) then would V . Example: If he spoke Chinese, he would work as a guide in China. (Fact: He doesn’t speak Chinese, so it’s impossible.) The Great Wall of China With permission from www.adcsoft.com/bjigsawpictures.html

Special Rules for Conditional II:

Special Rules for Conditional II “ To be ” is always “ were ” Example: If he were here, he would do it. (Fact: He’s not here, so it’s impossible.) You can drop the “ if ” by moving the “ were ” to the front. Example: Were he here, he would do it.

wish + (past):

wish + ( past ) Unlike a hope (which is possible), a wish usually will not come true. In general, you wish for a miracle, something that is impossible. Examples: I wish I were in Costa Rica. (I’m not there.) He wishes he spoke Chinese. (He doesn’t.)

would rather:

would rather “ Would rather ” is like Conditional II, wishing for something that is probably impossible. Form: Subject 1 would rather subject 2 ( past ). Example: I would rather he came right now. (Fact: He probably won’t.) would rather = ‘d rather Example: I ’d rather he came right now.

Conditional III (past – impossible):

Conditional III (past – impossible) “Making believe” about the past, assuming something that wasn’t true Form: If had V3rd , then would have V3rd . Example: If we had studied , we would have passed the exam. (Fact: We didn’t study and we didn’t pass the exam.)

Where does the “not” go?:

Where does the “not” go? If the girl had not looked both ways when she crossed the street, a car would have hit her. (Fact: She did look both ways, so a car did not hit her.) If the boys had practiced more, they would not have lost the game. (Fact: They did not practice enough, so they lost the game.)

Special Rules for Conditional III:

Special Rules for Conditional III You can drop the “ if ” by moving the “ had ” to the front. Example: If he had been there, we would have done it. Had he been there, we would have done it. Be careful !! Although you are starting with a “little verb”, this is not a question !!

Good Luck !! Just remember to ask yourself: :

Good Luck !! Just remember to ask yourself: Is the situation possible or impossible? Is the situation in the past or in the present/future?

Remember !!:

Remember !! The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are: will, won’t, would, wouldn’t

The End :

The End

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