Today’s Objective: SOL 3.d : Today’s Objective: SOL 3.d Given information and/or diagrams on cellular respiration, write and/or identify the cellular respiration equation, raw materials, products, and sites. Cellular Respiration : Cellular Respiration Energy for life’s activities Overview of Cellular Respiration : Overview of Cellular Respiration The life processes of all organisms require energy.
The potential energy held in the bonds of food molecules CANNOT be used directly by the cell.
Energy from food must be converted to the ONLY energy source that cells can use ATP! Cellular Respiration : Cellular Respiration Respiration is the process by which the energy in the bonds of nutrients are used to synthesize ATP.
Respiration occurs continuously in all cells of all organisms. Anaerobic Respiration : Anaerobic Respiration Also called fermentation
No oxygen is present
1 Glucose only partially broken down to form waste products and 2 ATP Anaerobic Pathways : Anaerobic Pathways Glucose 2 lactic acid + 2 ATP
Happens in muscle cells when they run out of oxygen
Happens in bacteria that make yogurt, cheese, dill pickles
Glucose 2 ethanol + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP
Happens in some bacteria
Happens in YEAST Aerobic Respiration : Aerobic Respiration Has to have oxygen
Most organisms on earth are aerobic
1 glucose completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + E Aerobic Pathway : Aerobic Pathway Takes place mostly in mitochondria
3 primary steps:
Glycolysis in cytoplasm: produces pyruvate and 2 net ATP (anaerobic)
Kreb’s cycle in matrix of mitochondria: converts pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA (aerobic)
Electron transport chain on membrane of mitochondria: moves electrons to produce 34 ATP (aerobic) Comparing Aerobic & Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Pathways : Comparing Aerobic & Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Pathways Adaptations for Respiration : Adaptations for Respiration Bacteria, protists & fungi
Respiratory gases are exchanged by diffusion
Respiratory gases are exchanged through leaves, stems, and roots
Moves in and out of cells by diffusion but leaves and stems also have openings to the environment (stomata and lenticels) Adaptations for Respiration in Animals : Adaptations for Respiration in Animals Techniques vary:
Simple diffusion across cell membranes
Diffusion across moist skin into a circulatory system
Openings to the environment that can be flapped open and closed with a circulatory system to transport gases
Specialized respiratory structures (e.g. lungs) to speed exchange of respiratory gases