Presentation PSM2i

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presentation psm sand casting ut


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PROBLEM STATEMENT Most of the foundry industries rely on foundry sand supplied all the way from Johor. Johor was the biggest producers of foundry sand in Peninsular Malaysia. It produced 80% of total country’s production. The other states were Sarawak and Pahang.


OBJECTIVE To determine the status of local resource mold material for use in the sand mold making.


SCOPES Local resource of Kg. Raja, Parit , Perak. Identify chemical composition and physical properties of Perak River sand. Determine the permeability and strength of resource compare to normal material SiO2. Eye inspection of finish product of casting



Collection of the samples:

Collection of the samples Sand sampling standard requires an auger drilling process at least an average of 2 m deep from the water bed ( Paulus Godwin, 2002). Some might go until 6 m deep (S.P Sundeen , 1978) to explore the sand reserve and its characteristic. But for this study the process cannot be done because of insufficient appropriate equipment. To overcome this problem, the researcher was advised to take the samples from sand digging activity along Perak River as it meet the standard depth for sand sampling. The samples were then sent to Mineral and Geo-Science Laboratory for testing and the results will obtain from them. (Refer table below for chemical purity standard.)

Properties of silica sand for foundry use:

Properties of silica sand for foundry use Source: FOSECO International Foundry men’s Handbook


SINTERING POINTS Sintering points of silica sand Source: Foseco (2004) Ferrous Foundryman ’ s Handbook 11 th Edition Sand Sintering Temperature(° C) High purity silica sand, > 99 % quartz 1450 Medium purity silica sand, 96% quartz 1250 Sea sand (high shell content) 1200 Natural clay bonded sand 1050 - 1150

Dry the raw sample:

Dry the raw sample Certain amount of sample taken and dried at a temperature of 110°C in a stove to eliminate moisture inside the grain so that it would not stick to each others. Foseco (2007) stated the correct amount for this purpose was 100g while Nuhu (2008) in his method used 50 g of sand sample.


FINDINGS AND DISSCUSSION TEST RAW CHEMICAL COMPOSITION From FOSECO the minimum requirement is not fulfill with the raw material.

Sieve Test:

Sieve Test To determine Average Grain Size (AGS), it is customary to use a standard sieve set also known as Sieve Shaker. The sieve contains several sieves one above the other, having a varying but known number of meshes. The coarsest sieve is placed at the top and the finest at the bottom. From the sieve test, grain size distribution will be obtained according the number of sieve attaches to the shaker. Average grain size could be calculated by the given formula. Refer to Appendix A for ISO standard for sieve microns and multiplier and Appendix B for Sieve Test Form).


SIEVE APERTURE Table 1: Sieve Aperture, micrometers and sieve number standard Source: FOSECO International Foundry men’s Handbook

Grain size Distribution:

Grain size Distribution Source: FOSECO International Foundry men’s Handbook

Distribution Of Raw Material:

Distribution Of Raw Material

Clay Content:

Clay Content The total clay content in sand can be calculated by means of apparatus called the clay content tester. The sample under test is first dried and cooled and then a particular amount of it (usually 50g) is taken into a receptacle or jar. Finally 475 ml of water and 25 ml of standard solution of NaOH are added to the sample. The mixtures were then siphoned for 5 minutes until the clay inside the sand afloat. The float material is clay and removed from the container. This process should be repeated at least 3 times. The remaining sand in the jar is filtered carefully, dried for half an hour and weighted. The difference between this weight and the original weight gives the weight of the clay.(P.L Jain, 2003)

Clay Content:

Clay Content Raw (g) After Wash (g) 50 49.787 50 49.782 50 49.783 Total % 0.432

Distribution Of Clean Samples:

Distribution Of Clean Samples

Grain Size Of Kg Raja :

Grain Size Of Kg Raja BS Sieve No BSS 44 BSS 52 BSS 60 BSS72

Grain Size Of Johor Silica:

Grain Size Of Johor Silica BS Sieve No BSS 44 BSS52 BSS 60 BSS 72

Classification of Grain Shapes:

Classification of Grain Shapes High Sphericity Medium Sphericity Low Sphericity Very Angular Angular Sub-Angular Sub- rounded Rounded Well Rounded

Comparison of Johor Silica and Kg Raja River Sand Distribution and Grain shapes:

Comparison of Johor Silica and Kg Raja River Sand Distribution and Grain shapes Johor Silica Kg Raja River Sand Base on Size Spread BS Sieve Number between 44 , 52, 60 and 72 are required .(FOSECO) Percentage spread in Johor Silica 10%, 11.7%, 14% and 23.8% Sub-angular shape with medium sphericity . Percentage of Size Spread of River Sand are 25%, 26.2%, 19.4% and 13.8%. Sub-angular with medium sphericity

Convertion Table:

Convertion Table Convertion Table to convert from BSS AFS grain fineness no to average grain size.

AFS Grain Fineness Number for Kg Raja River Sand:

AFS Grain Fineness Number for Kg Raja River Sand

AFS Grain Fineness Number for Johor Silica Sand:

AFS Grain Fineness Number for Johor Silica Sand


MIX SAMPLE AND SIZE SPREAD Grain size distribution of foundry sand generally fall into the range 150-400 μ m and most commonly used is 220-250 μ m. 95% of the sand retained on four or five screens. More than 10% each sieve for 220-250 μ m. AFS ( μ m) % 425 9-14 300 20-30 212 30-40 150 15-25

Chemical Composition of Clean Sample:

Chemical Composition of Clean Sample From the table of FOSECO we can compare that lower the silica will increase other chemical properties. In this river sand aluminum oxide with the second biggest fraction . Grade Silica (max) % Al2O3 (max) Fe2O3 Ca & MgO Alkaline A 98 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 B 95-98 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 C 90-95 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5

Samples Preparation:

Samples Preparation Samples can be prepared and be tested in permeability and Green sand Compression test (GSC ) To determine permeability and GSC the AFS Standard sand specimen of 5.08 cm (2 inches) diameter and 5.08 cm in height is prepared by ramming the required quantity of sand in a smooth surface tube with three blows of standard rammer. The samples will be mix with increasing value until saturated mixture of bentonite /clay with 3 % of water constant.

Permeability :

Permeability TEST PROCEDURE DIN Standard Time and Pressure Method Check that the open orifice is in position in the centre post. Prepare a standard specimen of sand. Before stripping from tube, place in position on the centre post and seal by rotating the knurled ring anti-clockwise. Allow the air drum to descend by turning the air valve to a position midway between ‘CLOSED’ and ‘VENT’. Time the descent of the air drum between the zero and the 2000 ml mark with a stop watch and record the pressure indicated on the manometer during the descent of the drum. Source: Ridsdale and Ridsdale DieterT

Permeability Result with 3% Moisture:

Permeability Result with 3% Moisture

Comparison of Permeability Number of Johor Silica and Kg Raja River Sand With 3% Moisture:

Comparison of Permeability Number of Johor Silica and Kg Raja River Sand With 3% Moisture

Green Compression Strength Test:

Green Compression Strength Test Place the compression heads in the position shown on the illustration. Raise the weight arm slightly and insert a metric standard 50 mm diameter x 50 mm height test specimen between the compression heads so that the face that was uppermost in the ramming operation is facing the right-hand compression head. Care should be taken not to damage the specimen. See that the magnetic rider is resting against the pusher plate and that there is at least 6 mm clearance between the rubber bumper and the lug on the weight arm. If this clearance is not sufficient, it means that the specimen is smaller than the permitted tolerance and should be discarded. Apply a load to the specimen by turning the hand-wheel at a uniform rate (approximately 25 kN /m2 green compression in 10 seconds)* until the specimen collapses. Record the reading shown on the lower edge of the magnetic rider, reading the scale designated “Green Compression Strength”. Return the weight to zero by reversing the rotation of the hand-wheel. Remove the sand from the compression heads. Source: Ridsdale and Ridsdale DieterT

Green Compression Strength With 3 % Moisture:

Green Compression Strength With 3 % Moisture

Comparison of Kg Raja and Johor Silica in Green Compression Strength with 3% Moisture:

Comparison of Kg Raja and Johor Silica in Green Compression Strength with 3% Moisture

Optimum Working Point:

Optimum Working Point Optimum working point

Flow chart of Sand Casting:

Flow chart of Sand Casting Pouring Melting Mould Making Sand Preparation Pattern Making Core Making Cleaning and inspection Removal of Sand Mould Solidification and cooling Raw Material Sand Finished Product

Eye Inspection:

Eye Inspection Casting Defects due to Sand Molds: Sand blow Pinholes Sand wash Scabs Penetration Mold shift Core shift Mold crack Defects will be inspect by Dye penetrate test. Source :Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

Aluminum Casting :

Aluminum Casting Kg Raja River Sand Finish Product Johor Silica Finish Product

Eye Inspection:

Eye Inspection Kg Raja Johor Silica

Eye Inspection:

Eye Inspection Scar Wash Penetration


Conclusion The best foundry sands have grains which are rounded with medium to high sphericity giving good flowability and permeability with high strength at low binder additions. More angular and lower sphericity sands require higher binder additions, have lower packing density and poorer flowability . Identification of grain size distribution and average grain size of river sand is important to determine the potential of the sand for use as moulding aggregates for making greensand casting mould before other testing. The green compression strength of foundry sand is the maximum compressive strength a mixture is capable of developing when moist and routine purposes,. The permeability is the physical property of the moulded mass of a sand mixture, which allow gas to pass through it. Permeability also give problem to more defect in casting that must be considered. Clay and water act as control addition to influence mechanical properties of moulding sand.


GANTT CHART OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES DESCRIPTION Jan 12 Feb 12 Mar 12 Apr 12 May 12 Jun 12 Jul 12 1. Proposal’s Submission 1/1 2. Literature Review 3. Methodology i- Site research and review ii- Sample Collection and Initial Preparation iii- Experimental work and data collection iv- Record Findings and Analysis v- Others input finding 4. Analysis and Evaluation 5. Report Writing 6. Final Write Up and Submission


EXPECTED OUTPUT/RESULT Sungai Perak sand can widening the source of foundry sand in Malaysia. The results of experiment achieve the standard of standard sand. Research can be perfected with more experiments such as tensile and metallurgy test.

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