Curing of acrylic resin denture base

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Curing of acrylic resin denture base:

Curing of acrylic resin denture base

Processing acrylic resin (curing):

Processing acrylic resin (curing) The denture base material used in denture base construction is heat cured type. The polymerization process is activated by heat . The processing or polymerization of acrylic resin is the conversion of the monomer to the polymer when a mixture of the two is subjected to heat (in water bath ). The reaction is an addition polymerization reaction to convert MMA (methyl methacrylate ) to PMMA ( polymethyl methacrylate ). Mono= single Poly= many Polymer: large long chain molecules formed by chemically joining smaller molecules called monomers

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Curing: Having filled the mould with dough, the next stage is to polymerise the monomer to produce the final ‘processed’ denture. Curing is normally carried out by placing the clamped flask in either a water bath or an air oven. Whichever type of system is used, many ‘curing cycles’ are available. Stages of Addition Polymerization: An addition reaction simply involves the joining together of two molecules to form a third, larger molecule. In simplified terms the reaction may be visualized as follows: R* + M → R − M* R − M* + M → R − M − M* R − M − M* + M → R − M − M − M* etc.

Stages of Addition Polymerization: :

Stages of Addition Polymerization: Activation : This involves decomposition of the peroxide initiator using thermal activation (heat) , to produce free radicals. activators: Tertiary amine Heat R − O − O − R → 2RO · Initiation: When an initiator such as benzoyl peroxide is decomposed and free radicals are produced. The polymerization reaction is initiated when the radical, formed on activation, reacts with a monomer molecule. RO · + M → RO − M · Propagation: Following initiation, the new free radical is capable of reacting with further monomer molecules. Each stage of the reaction produces a new reactive species capable of further reaction . RO − M · + M → RO − M − M · RO − M − M · + M → RO − M − M − M · Termination: Occurs when monomer units are used up, or free radical is tied up by a reaction.

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Important considerations: Benzoyl peroxide initiator begins to decompose rapidly to form free radicals above 65ºC. The polymerization reaction is highly exothermic. The boiling point of the monomer is 100.3ºC and if the temperature of the dough is raised significantly above this, the monomer will boil, producing spherical voids in the hottest part of the curing dough. These will be apparent as gaseous porosity in the cured denture base. It is important to get a high degree of conversion from monomer to polymer and to produce a polymer with high molecular weight. Residual monomer and low molecular weight polymer result in poor mechanical properties as well as possible adverse tissue reactions.

Heat curing cycles:

Heat curing cycles Fast cycle Cure at 70°C for 90 min 100°C for 30 min. Slow cycle Cure at 70°C for 7-9 hrs 100°C for 30 min. Other cycles are done as recommended by manufacturers.

Heat curing cycles:

Heat curing cycles Rapid curing: Excess radical release Extra cross linking and branching of interstitial polymer More residual monomer Reduced toughness Heat builds up from exothermic reaction Porosity Loss of strength Bad esthetics (opaque and cloudy color) Prone to candidal infection

Heat curing cycles:

Heat curing cycles Slow curing : Sufficient radical release Adequate cross linking and branching between high molecular weight polymer chains Increased toughness Sufficient radical ends increase monomer incorporation in growing chains

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Before deflasking the processed denture the flask is cooled to room temperature. To minimize internal stresses and subsequent warpage of the denture. Internal stresses may lead to warpage of the denture base at a later stage if the denture is placed in warm water for cleaning.

Porosity: :

Porosity: types of porosity in acrylic resin denture base: Contraction porosity. Gaseous porosity. Granular porosity.

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Contraction porosity: occurs due to monomer contraction by 20% during processing . Insufficient amounts of resin packed in the flask may lead to voids or porosity. Also resin should be packed in the dough stage. Prior to that the resin would flow too rapidly and pressure is lost. Insufficient pressure during curing.

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Gaseous porosity: Caused by a rise in the resin temperature during curing above 100°C (> boiling temperature of resin). Gaseous monomer forms and causes gaseous porosity. This is avoided by allowing a slow and controlled rise in temperature.

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Granular porosity: due to loss of monomer while resin mix is left to stand until dough stage is reached. Also if the resin mix is dry.

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Thank you for your nice attention

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