Alfredkim electrical earthing

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this presentation is about Electrical Earthing. Earthing is necessary to protect the human beings from electric shocks and electric fires.

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WELCOMES YOU

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ABOUT US – ALFREDKIM PROFILE We are a professionally managed Company engaged in manufacturing of chemical pipe earthing systems at our works at Faridabad, Haryana (India). The Company is aggressively persuing the cause of safety and protection of People, Property & Equipments in Industrial, Commerical and Domestic Installations in the country. In the short period of our 1 Year experience, we have exported reasonable quantities of chemical pipe earthing systems for a Cement Plant in Jordon & 6.6 KV Sub-Station in Kabul (Afghanistan).

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I am Electricity . My home is in wires and conductors. My Father is Volta . My mother is Magnet and I ma a very important source of energy in modern times. I have a son called “Electron” If you want to know about me you can consult my subordinate “Voltmeter” I have a brother called Voltage.  I am very useful. Without me your life is very difficult . I am mostly used in Industries ; Agriculture etc. Without me no “ SUPER COMPUTER” can work. I would like to summarize myself as follows :- I am an electric current And not very tolerant I am extremely useful If you are careful The moment you become careless I also become senseless And I become the cause of tragedy Whether it is “a Man” or “a Lady” BIOGRAPHY OF ELECTRICITY

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The quality products offered by us are being well-accepted by most of the leading electrical consultants in India. The Company is Promoted by Sh. Anil Kumar and his family who have vision for the growth of electrical industry and infra-structure. The dynamic leadership and the foresight of Sh. Anil Kumar will lead the company successfully in the years to come to attain a leadership position in the earthing/grounding system and solutions in the country.

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Application of Earthing • Allow zero potential to supply system • Provide zero connection for Neutral • Protect human against lightning and earth fault condition • Protect the premises against lightning and earth fault condition • Provide low resistance and safe path for lightning and fault current • All metallic enclosure and extraneous conductive parts are at equipotential • LV System Earth • Equipment Earth • Clean Earth for signaling and noise • Create equipotential platform Electrical Earthing is most neglected part of the electrical safety for people and property Let us discuss What is Earthing?

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EXTENSIVE APPLICATIONS Alfredkim Systems & Solutions Pvt. Limited specializes in full range of professional services from engineering, manufacturing, installation and testing of sealed maintenance free chemical filled earth electrodes for grounding system. The grounding system we offer is permanent & completely maintenance free, no need for periodic watering of the ground pit sand, thoroughly tested product even in unfavorable soil conditions with specified international norms.

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Alfredkim exceeds all the design code and safety standards developed to protect personnel property & sensitive equipments which includes all capital equipments and sensitive electronics at Radio & TV broadcast facilities, airports, air traffic control centers, railways infrastructure & network, hotels & hospitals, power generating units, electrical utility substations, metrological data sites, fuel depots, refineries, chemical plants, telecommunication centers, computer data centers, amusement parks and domestic, residential, commercial & Industrial establishments

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Hospitals Hotels Airports Communication Towers Residential colonies Ammusement parks

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Railways Data centers Refineries Commercial Establishments Fuel Depots Industries

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• Reference to IS3043 – 1987 Reaffirmed 2006 • “Earth” means the Ground, reference zero potential • Rely on the system earth to maintain the system voltage and normal voltage supply • Equipment earth connects all non-conductive parts to protect human against electric shock • Class I protection – use of barrier/insulation and connection of protective conductor to equipment metallic enclosure in order to protect against electric shock • Class II protection – beside of the basic insulation, addition layer of insulation apply to the enclosure. Therefore no extraneous conductive part. The additional layer is independent to the basic insulation so that under failure of basic insulation, it offers additional protection Glossary

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• Supply System – Neutral Earth • System Earth • Electrical Safety Earth • Lightning Earth • Generator Earth • Protection Earth (i.e. surge arrestor) • Telecom / Computer Earth • Shielding Earth • Integrated Earthing System (Advocated) • Electrostatic Earth (Clean Room / Hospital) • Cathodic protection (prevent rusty) Types of Earthing

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• Equipment Earth : Path for fault current, lower touch voltage, protection against electric shock • Lighting Earth : Low resistance path to diverse the current under lightning attrack • Telecom Earth : Signal Earth,reduce noise and interference, stabilize DC supply voltage and prevent electric shock • Computer Earth : reduce interference, maintain supply voltages Functions of Earthing

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• Two Alphabetic system description • First Alphabet – arrangement at Supply side – T represents system directly earthed, multi-earthed – I represents live part and earth path are separated, single point earthed through high impedance • Second Alphabet – arrangement at Consumer side – T represents extraneous parts directly earthed, the earth point independent from Supply side – N represents extraneous parts connected to the protective conductor of supply • TN systems have two category: –S protective conductor and neutral conductor are two wires – C protective conductor and neutral conductor are the same conductor Earthing System

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TN-S ‧protective conductor and neutral conductor are independent • All exposed metallic part connected with protective conductor PE • System Characteristics: – Low earth fault loop impedance – High earth fault current • Advantages: earth fault protection device operates faster; allow multi point earth, better earthing continuity; minimize the use of earth fault relay because of low earth fault loop impedance • Disadvantages: high earth fault level; under earth fault condition, low power factor (high inductance of long cable) Earthing System

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TN-C ‧protective conductor and neutral conductor are combined into one • All exposed conductive parts connected to PEN • System Characteristics : – Low earth fault loop impedance – High earth fault current – More than one earth fault loops • Advantages : no earth wire required; allow of multi-point earth, better earthing continuity; neutral never have float voltage; impedance of earth fault loop could be predicted • Disadvantages : If not multi-point earthed, and the neutral earth broken, the exposed metallic part may have float voltage; high earth fault level, intervenue the operation of earth fault protective device, current operated type device is not appropriated, voltage detected type could be employed Earthing System

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Earthing System

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TT • Supply side has one point earthing only • Exposed metal connected to consumer earth system • System characteristics : – High earth fault loop impedance – Low earth fault current – Utility company need not to provide earth for consumer • Advantages : Under earth fault condition, higher power factor; save earth wires • Disadvantages : high demand of E/F relays, individual earth system need higher investment, higher touch voltage; induce Potential gradient Earthing System

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Earthing System

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IT • System not connected with the earth (high impedance earth or isolated earth), all exposed conductive part connect to earth • Neutral is totally isolated • Infinity earth fault loop impedance • Deemed less chance of electric shock • Many disadvantages: phase current equal to live voltage (because of floating Neutral); no zero reference, may cause arcing when earth fault occurs; to small of earth fault level, current type earth fault detector cannot work properly Earthing System

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Modern Current Earthing System • Code 12 stipulated that electric equipment used to install its own earthing protection system (TT system) and Main Earth Terminal shall connected with utility company earth point. For instance, star of transformer or metallic earth from supply cable Earthing System

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Earthing System

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Earthing System

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FACT ABOUT SOIL RESISTIVITY - The resistivity of earth may vary over extremely wide limits, depending on the composition of the soil and the moisture content. Representative values are: General average 100 ohm-meters Swampy ground 10-100 ohm-meters Sea water 0.01-1 ohm-meters Dry earth 1000 ohm-meters Pure slate 10 7 ohm-meters Sandstone 10 8 ohm-meters

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Earth Electrode • Design concerns: • Resistance/impedance to earth • Heat capacity (during earth fault,max 40kA) • The potential gradient around the electrode during faults • Mechanical strength and ability in anti-corrosion • Earth electrode shall be rod / pipe, tape, buried copper plate, re-bar and superstructure • More than one electrode could be connected, the electrode could be a mixed system • Long electrode generally effective than short one. However electrode too long does not have significant effects; larger size do not have great effects in earthing impedance Earthing System

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ALFREDKIM – EARTH ELECTRODE Alfredkim Earthing Electrode is an ultra efficient low serge impedance grounding system and provides the desired low maintenance interface with real earth by continuously conditioning the surrounding soil. And manufactured by using strip in pipe passes through hot dip galvanized process ensuring 100% corrosive protection & water resistant and ensures maximum conductivity. This is achieved by applying a thick layer of Zink coating (80-100 microns).

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Electric Shock Protection • Every premises shall have basic consideration to its electric equipment’s safety – Electric Shock Protection • Means of electric shock – Direct contact or indirect contact • Direct contact means direct touch to the live parts • Indirect Contact means human contact to non-conductive metal, of which the extraneous part becomes live during faults • Electric Shock Protection shall meet the requirements in Code 11B including equipotential zones and automatic disconnection under fault • IEC report 479-1(1984) had studied “The effects in inject of current into human and concerns on the current magnitude, duration and flowing path Earthing System

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INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES- Let us review the important rules to get proper insight into safety aspects Rule 29 : Construction, installation, protection, operation and maintenance of electric supply lines and apparatus. All electric supply lines and apparatus shall be sufficient rating for power, insulation and estimated fault current and of sufficient mechanical strength for the duty which they may be required to perform under the environmental conditions of installation and shall be constructed, installed, protected, worked and maintained in such a manner as to ensure safety of human beings, animals and property.

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1. Save as otherwise provided in these rules, the relevant code of practice of the Bureau of Indian Standards including National Electrical Code, if any, may also be followed to carry out the purposes of this rule and in the event of any inconsistency the provision of these rules shall prevail. 2. The material and apparatus used shall conform to the relevant specifications of the Bureau o Indian Standards where such specifications have already been laid down.

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Rule 30 : Service lines and apparatus on consumer’s premises. The supplier shall ensure that all electric supply lines, wires, fittings and apparatus belonging to him or under his control which are on consumer’s premises, are in a safe condition and in all respects fit for supplying energy and the supplier shall take due precautions to avoid danger arising on such premises from such supply lines, wires, fittings and apparatus.

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2. Service-lines placed by the supplier on the premises of a consumer which are underground or which are accessible shall be so insulated and protectetd by the supplier as to be secure under all ordinary conditions against electrical, mechanical, chemical or other injury to the insulation. 3.The consumer shall, as far as circumstances permit, take precautions for the safe custody of the equipment on his premises belonging to the supplier. 4. The consumer shall also ensure that the installation under his control is maintained in a safe condition.

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Rule 31 : Cut-out on consumer’s premises : 1. The supplier shall provide a suitable cutout in each conductor of every service-line other than an earthed or earthed neutral conductor or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable within a consumer’s premises, in an accessible position. Such cut-out shall be contained within an adequately enclosed fireproof receptacle. where move than one consumer is supplied through a common service-line, each such consumer shall be provided with an independent cut-out at the point of junction to the common service.

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2. Every electric supply line other than the earth or earthed neutral conductor of any system or the earthed external conductor of a concentric cable shall be protected by its owner.

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Rule 32 : Identification of earthed and earthed neutral conductors and Positions of switches therein. Where the conductors include an earthed conductor of a two-wire system or a conductor which is to be connected thereto, the following conditions shall be compiled with : 1. An indication of a permanent nature shall be provided by the owner of the earthed neutral conductor, or the conductor which is to be connected thereto, to enable such conductor to be distinguished from any live conductor. Such indication shall be provided – a. where the earthed or earthed neutral conductor is the property of the supplier, at or near the point of commencement of supply;

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b. where a conductor forming part of a consumer’s system is to be connected to the supplier’s earthed or earthed neutral conductor, at the point where such connection is to be made; c. in all other cases, at a point corresponding to the point of commencement of supply or at such other points as may be approved by an inspector or any officer appointed to assist the inspector and authorized under sub-rule (2) of rule 4A.

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2. No cut-out, link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and live conductors shall be inserted or remain inserted or remain inserted in any earthed or neutral earthed neutral conductor of a two-wire system or any earthed or earthed neutral conductor of a multi-wire system or in any conductor connected thereto with the following exceptions : A link for testing purposes, or B. switch for use in controlling a generator or transformer.

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Rule 33 : Earthed terminal on consumer’s Premises : 1. The supplier shall provide and maintain on the consumer’s premises for the consumer’s use a suitable earthed terminal in an accessible position at or near the point of commencement of supply as defined under rule 58. Provided that in the case of medium, high or extra-high voltage installation the consumer shall, in addition to the aforementioned earthing arrangements, provide his own earthing system with an independent electrode. Provided further that the supplier may not provide any earthed terminal in the case of installations already connected to his system on or before the date to be specified by the State Government in this behalf if he is satisfied

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2. The consumer shall take all reasonable precautions to prevent mechanical damage to the earthed terminal and its lead belonging to the supplier 3. The supplier may recover from consumer the cost of installation on the basis of schedule of charges notified in advance and where such schedule of charges is not notified, the procedure prescribed, in sub-rule (5) of rule 82 will apply.

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Rule 34 : Accessibility of bare conductors. Where bare conductors are used in a building, the owner of such conductors Shall. a. ensure that they are inaccessible; b. provide in readily accessible position switches for rendering them dead b. whenever necessary; and c. take such other safety measures as are considered necessary by the inspector.

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Rule 35 : Danger Notices : The owner of every medium, high and extra-high voltage installation shall affix permanently in a conspicuous position a danger notice in Hindi or English and the local language of the district, with a sign of skull and bones of a design as per the relevant ISS No. 2551 on – a. every motor, generator, transformer and other electrical plant and equipment together with apparatus used for controlling or regulating the same; b. all supports of high and extra-high voltage overhead lines which can be easily climbed upon without the aid of ladder or special appliances;

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Explanation :- Rails, tubular poles, wooden supports, reinforced cement concrete poles without steps, I-sections and channels, shall be deemed as supports which cannot be easily climbed upon for the purposes of this clause. c. Luminous tube sign requiring high voltage supply, X-ray and similar high-frequency installations;

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Provided that where it is not possible to affix such notices on any generator, motor, transformer or other apparatus, they shall be affixed as near as possible thereto; or the Word ‘Danger’ and the voltage of the apparatus concerned shall be permanently painted on it. Provided further that where the generator, motor, transformer or other apparatus is within an enclosure one notice affixed to the said enclosure shall be sufficient for the purposes of this rule.

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RULE 36 : Handling of electric supply lines and apparatus : 1. Before any conductor or apparatus is handled, adequate precautions shall be taken by earthing or other suitable means, to discharge electrically such conductor or apparatus, and any adjacent conductor or apparatus if there is danger there from, and to prevent any conductor or apparatus from being accidentally or inadvertently electrically charged when persons are working thereon. Every person who is working on an electric supply line or apparatus or both shall be provided with tools and devices such as gloves, rubber shoes, safety belts, ladders, earthing devices, helmets, line testers, hand lines and the like for protecting him from mechanical and electrical injury. Such tools and devices shall always be maintained in sound and efficient working conditions.

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2. No person shall work on any live electric supply line or apparatus and no person shall assist such person on such work, unless he is authorized in that behalf, and take t he safety measures approved by the Inspector. 3. Every telecommunication on supports carrying a high or extra-high voltage line shall, for the purpose of working thereon, be deemed to be a high voltage line.

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RULE 37 : Rules 37 to 41A : These appertain to provisions in respect of supply to vehicles, cranes etc, cables for portable or transportable apparatus, cables protected by bituminous materials, street boxes and distinction of different and multiple feed installations.

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RULE 37 : Rules 43 to 46 : These concern stipulations regarding protective equipment like fire buckets, fire extinguishers, First-aid boxes, gas masks, Instructions for restoration of persons suffering from electric shock, intimation of accidents, precautions to be adopted by consumers, owner occupiers, electrical contractors, electrical workmen and suppliers along with provisions for periodical inspection and testing of installations. RULE 61 : Connection with earth. These rules lay down the requirements of connection with earth of systems at low voltage in cases where the voltage exceeds 125 volts and of systems at medium voltage.

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RULE 61A : Earth leakage protective device The supply of energy to every electrical installation other than low voltage installation below 5 KW and those low voltage installations which do not attract provisions of Section 30 of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, shall be controlled by an earth leakage protective device so as to disconnect the supply instantly on the occurrence or earth fault or leakage of current. Provided that the above shall not apply to overhead supply lines having protective devices which are effectively bonded to the neutral of supply transformers and conforming to Rule 91 of IE Rules,1956.

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DISCARD PIT TYPE EARTHING–SWITCH TO CHEMICAL PIPE EARTHING! The conventional copper pit type earthing is out of date because:- 1. The water level is going down at most of the geographical areas & therefore one has to dig deep holes may be to the extent of 20-50 mtr. 2. The commonly used substances in pit type earthing were sodium Chloride known as common salt, soft coke & charcoal. 3 . The common salt (sodium chloride) is a hygroscopic substance & it gets dissolved in water & losses its hygroscopic properties when become water itself. 4. The salt is known to be a corrosive electrolyte which decays the pipe and the conductor used for earthing. Due to decay one does not get the consistent ohmic values. 5. The soft coke & charcoal tend to become ash due to heavy heat generated by heavy electric fault currents generated in the system especially at higher voltages at 1.1kv, 3.3kv, 6.6kv, 11kv, 33kv, 66kv &133kv transmission distribution line & at substation.

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6 . The heat generated is proportional to I 2 Rt (Time in seconds) e.g. if the fault current of 10,000amps in the system with an earth resistance 2 ohms as permitted by IS in 0.01 seconds is given as under. H=I 2 Rt H=10,000x10, 000x2x0.01=20, 00,000 calories =1053 °C This much heat generated in one fault. Assuming 6 faults in a year. Then in a period of four year -24 fault occur , each fault generating 1053 °C & Above. 7. Each fault of this magnitude will turn the soft coke/ charcoal into ash gradually in a period of 3-4 years. The earth system will deteriorate and give larger value of ohmic resistance thereby endangering the entire installation consequently people & property . 8 . If the ohmic values goes up from 2 to 3 ohms because of faulty earth systems heat generated will be 30,00,000 calories (i.e. 1600 °C )this results that the pit type earthing is inefficient , not reliable & cause serious damage to life & property in a period of 3-4 years .

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9. It is therefore observed that separate watering arrangement required to be made for maintaining moisture through a separate pipe dug along the earthing system. 10. Instead of water producing the moisture in the earth pit the additional quantity of water poured in with a natural rain fall will wash away the charcoal & the soft coke from its main position thereby it will further deteriorate the functioning of the earth system.

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Why install chemical earthing: The above points conclude that pit type earthing is out of date and it is being replaced and preferred over chemical pipe earthing for reasons given below:- 1. The pipe for the chemical earthing are generally 2 mtr or 3mtr in length therefore the earth bore need not more than the 250 to 300mm dia & maximum depth of 3mtr. 2. The moisture is maintained at a small depth of 3mtr by using ground enhancement material, commonly known as GBFC (Grounding Back Fill Compound). 3. The efficacy of the chemical earthing to maintain the moisture which is essential for low ohmic values of earthing resistance is due to use of hygroscopic chemical like aluminum silicate etc. which absorb the moisture but doesn’t get dissolved in the water unlike salt.

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4. The heat generated due to electric faults developing heat of 1060 °C and above is resisted by CCM (Crystalline Conducive Material) which can withstand upto 2500°C. 5. The CCM is filled in the pipe of appropriate dimension of 50mm or 80mm dia and sealed at both ends . It incorporates the earth conductor of GI strip of suitable size of 30x6mm or 40x6mm depending upon the individual design of manufacturer.

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6. The CCM filled in the pipe being a good conductor increases the fault current capacity of the system because the pipe is hollow but when filled with CCM it behaves like almost solid pipe. 7. The CCM resists cracking, warping, shrinking, or distortion even when temperature exceed 2500 °C due to severe repeated electric faults which may happen in operations over the year. 8. The GI pipe used are adequately galvanized (80-100 microns) as per IS -3047 1987. 9. Zinc oxide will be formed during the use of the earth system. Zinc oxide has following advantages over the conventional earthing which uses the copper plate or copper conductors:- a) Zinc oxide so formed is insoluble in water. b) Zinc oxide has a unique Dielectric strength that exhibits semiconducting & piezoelectric dual properties. (Unlike in copper where the copper oxide is a bad conductor of electricity & becomes powdered Red Oxide (Copper Oxide) under high fault current that generate high temperatures)

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c) ZnO finds application in Varistors which are used to prevent voltage surges in the electronic devices like mobile phone. d) ZnO is not combustible & used as a fire extinguishant material. CONCLUTION:- The industry, project managers & the electrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specify the chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, no maintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.

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a) Sub: Install ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHING. Prevent Electrical Hazards!! Need for Protection! To p rotect Industrial, commercial, and residential Buildings with proper electrical earthing Reasons: 1. Lightening Damage 2. Electrical leakages 3. Short circuits between phases / between phase and Neutral 4. Surges in Supply line Why Earthing? Effective Earthing in the building protects People, Property and Equipments.

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Result: Protection of persons within the building who are occupants as owners or tenants or employees or visitors or residents Type Of Hazards: Electric fires resulting in loss of Property and loss of Human lives in these divesting tragic fires. Good Earthing: ALFREDKIM chemical earthing is like an insurance f or protection of property , people and equipments. Any compromise on quality or absence of earthing is willful act of inviting electric hazards in the installation

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B. Why Electrical /Electronic fail to perform to optimum in industry and commercial buildings. The electrical /electronic equipment e.g UPS system, Computers, cfl lamps Eapbx , ac/dc VFd ,Speed Drives, CNC Machines, Printing Machines , Machine tools with electronic controls, Welding machines .Lifts ,EOT cranes and all such devices fitted with PCB/electronic cards have tendency to distort the sine wave of AC supply there by causing the resultant unbalanced voltage leading to Higher Voltage between Neutral and earth which lead to higher neutral currents which sometimes are 1.73 times of the phase currents

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Hazards Prevented: Poor performance of the above equipment resulting in loss of production and loss of man hours i.e idle man hours due to equipment failure or inefficient operation and additional rupee expense on maintenance Malfunctioning of equipments: Why electronic Equipment Malfunction Specially in the IT Industry e.g. call centers, BPO`s and similar industries in particular. The electronic circuits in this equipment are operating at different switching voltages as per the design of the individual manufacturers therefore it is essential that voltages between neutral and earth are maintained to minimum level so that the PCB`s/ electronic cards are not damaged due to high neutral currents and unbalanced voltages.

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b) Why watering is required for New Earth bore? When the pipe earthing /chemical earthing/maintenance free earthing/Gel earthing or whatever name it is called by various manufacturers the watering of the bore is necessary for the following reasons. a. Unlike pit earthing where the salt (Nacl) & coal is used with copper plate, the pit is dug very deep approximately 40ft to 70 ft. depending on soil conditions where the dampness/moisture is achieved at various level of depth. INSTALLATION OF ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHING

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b. In case of the modern type of earthing which is free from future maintenance .The watering of the bore prior to installation is necessary for the following reasons. 1. The depth of the bore is either 2m/3m (6ft/10ft) which is much less than the normal depth required in pit earthing. 2. The diameter of the bore is also limited to 200/300mm against the pit earthing which is almost in square meters. 3.Unlike salt which is used in pit earthing which dissolves in water and salt it self becomes water in the course of time and dries it self, thereby loosing the conductivity in surrounding of the pit. Salt itself reacts with copper & makes copper chloride & other corrosive chemicals which corrode the copper plates.

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4. The GEM used by us absorbs the water upto 13 to 15 times its weight & dosen’t dissolve in the water therefore it retains its moisture property upto the lifetime of the electrode which is more than 25 years as it contains soil friendly materials. 5. Since there is no need to recharge the pit as the GEM will remains moist through out the life, therefore it is desirable and absolutely necessary to keep watering the bore for three to four days continuously before installing the electrode and filling it with GEM so that the GEM will have moist bore available with enough water soaked in the bore due to continuous watering before installation.

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6. After the installation no watering is necessary for future maintenance in whatever soil condition it has been installed either indoor or outdoor installation. 7. The earthing is quite successful in the normal climatic condition where the average rain fall in a year may not exceed 250mm. This will give enough moisture to the soil. 8. This earthing is being recommended by most of the consultant in desert areas where there is scanty rain fall in desert areas where the water level to achieve the normal dampness is very-very deep.

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9. Since we are able to achieve required dampness in a depth of 2 to 3meters with continuous watering of the bore &adequate quantity of the GEM filled at the time of earthing which remains moist for the rest of life & maintains the good ohmic values of earth resistance. 10.To conclude the old copper pit type earthing is out of date & maintenance free earthing is easy to install, occupies less space & economical in the long run. CONCLUSION:- The industry, project managers & the electrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specify the chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, no maintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.

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c) Subject: - Location of Earthing? Question: Should it be near to the point of application/Equipment or away from it? Answer : It must be near to the point of application. Reason: Please read on! 1. OLD TRADITIONAL SYSTEM :- I) The conventional pit type copper plate Earthing with large Quantity of Charcoal & Salt was requiring large area of about 4’x3’or 6’x4’ & depth used to be 20’ to60’ (7 to 20 mtr)depending on the soil condition. II) This much area was conveniently available in the factories/office premises in earlier days when the space was not constraint.

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III)The distance between the earth pit & the point of application used to be few meters may be 50-100mtrs & therefore to maintain the low resistance of the earthing wire from the earth pit to the machinery the copper wire of 8/10 swg was used. IV) The copper wire thus used was cash & carry item for professional wire cutters who used to cut the wire at the first opportunity there by disconnecting the earthing system & causing an electrical danger to the system .

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2. PRESENT MODERN SYSTEM :- I) The space is become expensive & in short supply. II) The conventional pit type earthings is very cumbersome, laborious & occupies more space in term of sq. mtr & it is being replaced with chemical pipe earthings. III) The advantages of pipe earthing are :- a) It needs a bore of 250-300mm dia & the depth of 2 to 3 mtr. b) It is a neat & clean installation. c) Doesn’t spoil the look of the office or factory. d) It is conveniently covered up which can be flagged showing the location of the earthing. e) The pipe earthing is a compact unit & can be installed very near to the equipment hardly 2-5 mtr away from the equipment. f) The closeness of the earthing has a advantage of providing very low resistance value to the system which requires less length of the wire ( AS resistance is directly proportional to the length i.e. the smaller the length, it is better for earthing )

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g) Since the length of the earthing is required is very small in the installation of pipe earthings due to nearness to the equipment. h) The G.I. strip of cross section area of 10x3mm or more are used for connecting the pipe electrode to the equipment. I) G.I. wire is not favorite of wire cutters so there are no chances of disconnection of wire cutting or theft. j) The copper wire of 8/10 swg which was used earlier were subjected to more mechanical damages because of very low cross section area & the round wire is more subjected to more cross sectional damage than the rectangular strip of 10x3 mm or aboave. CONCLUSION :- In view of above application the earthing electrode close to the point of application or equipment are more desirable for electrical & electronics equipment which demand low value of ohmic resistance through out the year under all working condition i.e. extreme dry ,extremely cold or wet climates.

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d) Why Neutral Earthing /Grounding 1 All Neutral should have Zero Potential Difference. 2. Why Neutral Voltage is Noticed Now a Days. Reasons for Neutral voltage. A. The use of electronic equipment /ups/computers /CFL lamps/Speed drives etc. These devices on operate at different cut off voltages in the sine wave cycle and hence the sine wave is distorted resulting in the higher PD in the Neutral and cause the flow of currents in the Neutral Circuit which results in the damage of PCB cards and other sensitive components in the electronic circuit/equipments B) The Industrial loads are in general Not Balanced Loads and therefore the line voltages are spill over to Neutral which results into stray currents thereby damaging the electronic equipments/ PCB cards Why Neutral Grounding. A. To maintain the ZERO PD between the Neutral and earth and to ground the Spill over voltages the Neutral is grounded.

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It is therefore very necessary to immediately connect Neutral to the Earth by Solid Permanent contact so that there is no possibility of loose connection /disconnection at any stage OF OPERATION to prevent any electrical mishaps. Method of testing the New Earth Electrode A) Connect the New Electrode to the Neutral of Supply Line by very Good secure Connection Either Bolted or soldered. B) Connect the Volt meter as shown in the Picture (P1) below., C) When the Neutral is properly grounded and the earthing is Successful the voltmeter should give Nearly ZERO voltage between Earth and Neutral

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D) Electricity finds always easier path to flow therefore the spill over voltage in the neutral will go to the newly installed earth electrode. In case earthing is not successful or has higher ohmic value of resistance or loose contact/ disconnection in the earthing circuit the voltmeter will show the undesirable voltage. In case the earthing is ok and correctly done the voltmeter will show almost Zero Volts. Kindly follow the above testing methods and ensure the testing is properly done. CONCLUTION:- The industry, project managers & the electrical consultants find it very convincing to use & specify the chemical pipe earthing which is convenient to install, no maintenance what so ever with a long life of over 15 years.

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SYSTEMS OF GRID EARTHING Reasons of Grid Earthing : - 1. To manage very high fault currents So that the low ohmic value of earth resistance will reduce the effective watt loss thereby controlling the heat generated in the system. 2. To maintain very low level of ohmic values of earth resistance like 0.1 etc. so that the sensitive electrical protective devices& relays used in substations & power houses.

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System at Substations/Power Houses:- 1. The connected loads at your power Houses are heavy & at an extra high voltage as well. 2. The reason for maintaining the value of resistance appears to us for preventing the malfunction of the protective devices & Relays. How can we maintain the low ohmic earth resistance:- The examples are given below:- Formula to calculate the Resistance in Parallel:- If there is n resistance connected in parallel. Than 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+--------------------------------------------+1/Rn.

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A.) GRID of 12 EARTHING ELECTRODE: Case -I Earthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 hmic 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 Value On applying formula of Resistance :- 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12 1/R=1/0.6+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.0 1/R=1.67+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+1.0 1/R=14.61 R=0.068 Ω

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Case -II In case the earthing no.1 & 12 after some time become Out of order due to some reason like I) Accidently disconnected II) Loose Electrical Contacts. III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due to Mechanical stress

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III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due to Mechanical stress Earthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 Ohmic 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.0 Value On applying formula of Resistance :- 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12 1/R=1/0.0+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/0.0 1/R=0.0+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+0.0 1/R=11.94 R=0.08 Ω

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B.)GRID of 15 EARTHING ELECTRODE: Case -I Earthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 Ohmic Value 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

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On applying formula of Resistance :- 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12+1/R13+1/R14+1/R15 1/R=1/0.6+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/1.0 1/R=1.67+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.11+1.0+1.0+1.0+1.0 1/R=17.97 R=0.056 Ω

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Case -II In case the earthing no.1, 8 & 14 after some time become Out of order due to some reason like I) Accidently disconnected. II) Loose Electrical Contacts. III) Any type of cut in the distribution system due to Mechanical damage. Earthing R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 Ohmic Value 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.9 0.9 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0

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On applying formula of Resistance :- 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5+1/R6+1/R7+1/R8+1/R9+1/R10+1/R11+1/R12+1/R13+1/R14+1/R15 1/R=1/0.0+1/0.7+1/0.7+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.8+1/0.0+1/0.9+1/0.9+1/0.0+1/1.0+1/1.0+1/0.0+1/1.0 1/R=0.0+1.43+1.43+1.25+1.25+1.25+1.25+0.0+1.11+1.11+0.0+1.0+1.0+0.0+1.0 1/R=15.47 R=0.07 Ω

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We have given two cases for each type of grid earthing i.e. twelve earth systems & fifteen Earth systems. Our recommendations are for fifteen earth systems to maintain a long term low ohmic values because of the following factors:- 1. Change of a soil condition for a period of a time is choosing a different location for the earthing system in the same premise. 2. Change of CLIMATE CONDITION: a. Extremely dry climate- SUMMER b. Extremely cold climate- WINTER c. Extremely humid climate- RAINS CONCLUSION :- In view of above application the earthing electrode close to the point of application or equipment are more desirable for electrical & electronics equipment which demand low value of ohmic resistance through out the year under all working condition i.e. extreme dry ,extremely cold or wet climates.

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CORE FEATURES OF ALFREDKIM CHEMICAL EARTHNG • Ultra low resistance grounding electrode. • Make certain maximum safety from electrical system faults. • Maintenance free system, no need to dispense water recurrently. • Maintains dependable & unfailing earth resistance. • Limits the system-to-ground or system-to-frame voltage to values safe for personnel. • Offer a relatively firm & secure system with a minimum of transient over voltages. • Authorize any system fault to ground to be quickly isolated. • Protection against static electricity from friction. • Prevents static charge & stray current accidents.

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• Endow with good grounds for electric process control and communication circuits. • Conductive compound constructs a conductive zone and offers much increased area for peak current dissipation • Low earth resistance. High conductive. • Transmits high peak current repeatedly. Endlessly sustain almost the identical earth resistance value regardless of soil & climate conditions. • Multi-directional dissipation of current. • Stabilize circuit potential with respect to ground and limit overall potential rise. • Eco Friendly, safe, reliable and anti corrosive. • Much stretched life. • Straight forward & trouble free to mount.

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CHEMICALS USED - BENTONITE Bentonite is naturally occuring hydrated Aluminium Silicate. The most important use of Bentonite is based on its natural swelling property.one can surely say that bentonite is most economic natural thickner available to industries. It has ability to absorb water several (15) times its weight and give thickstropic fluid. Chemically Bentonite is HYDRATED ALUMINIUM SILICATE. Chemical Formula : Al2O34SiO2H2O Physical Properties : Sp. Gravity : 2.4 Bulk density : 0.6 PH of 10% Aqueous solution : 8 to 8.8 Chemical Composition : Silica : 54.26 Aluminium : 18.34 Ferric Oxide : 10.91 TiO2 : 01.25

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The Exceptional Nature of Graphite - Graphite - Properties The most significant property of graphite is its dimensional strength and stability at ultra-high temperatures. It resists cracking, warping, shrinking, or distortion even when temperatures exceed 2500 o C. Graphite is resistant to both thermal shock and chemical attack, and can act as either a thermal conductor or insulator, depending on the application. At the same time, it is electrically conductive and naturally lubricating. Essentially inert, graphite is considered to be environmentally safe and non-toxic. While standard synthetic graphite is quite pure, extremely pure grades are available for special applications such as research and elemental analysis. It can also be processed into a variety of forms from felts and foils to composites and precisely machined components.

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Uses of Graphite Application - Why Graphite Works Crucibles : High purity. Excellent resistance to thermal shock and chemical attack. Non-wetting by most molten metals. Electrical Heating Elements : With electrical properties falling between those of metals and ceramics, the electrical resistivity can be varied over a considerable range. Bushings : Self-lubrication and durability in the absence of petroleum-based lubricants, at temperatures to 1,200 F Sintering Trays and Boats : Thermal stability, low wettability and low specific heat. EDM Electrodes : Electrical conductivity, resistance to wear from electrical arcing and excellent machinability into complex shapes.

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Molds : Dimensional stability, low wettability and high purity. Seal Faces : Self-lubrication, dimensional stability and resistance to chemical attack. Continuous Casting Dies : Dimensional stability, excellent machinability high thermal conductivity and self-lubrication.

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UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION In the matter of: UPCL not inspecting and testing applicant’s installation and maintaining record of test results obtained in the specified format, in accordance with provisions of UERC (Release of New LT connection, Enhancement and Reduction of Loads) Regulations, 2007 read with Rules 47 & 48 of IE Rules, 1956. Coram V.J. Talwar Chairman Anand Kumar Member Date of Order: October 27, 2008

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UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION The Order is based on Rule 67(1-A) “the neutral point of every generator and transformer shall be earthed by connecting it to the earthing system as defined in Rules 61 (4) and hereinabove by not less than two separate and distinct connections” Rule 61(4) defines earthing system as: “All earthing systems shall – (a) consist of equipotential bonding conductors capable of carrying the prospective earth fault current and a group of pipe/rod/plate electrodes for dissipating the current to the general mass of earth without exceeding the allowable temperature limits as per relevant Indian Standards in order to maintain all non-current carrying metal works reasonably at earth potential and to avoid dangerous contact potentials being developed on such metal works;

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(b) Limit earth resistance sufficiently low to permit adequate fault current for the operation of proactive devices in time and to reduce neutral shifting. (c) Be mechanically strong, withstand corrosion and retain electrical continuity during the life of the installation. All earthing systems shall be tested to ensure efficient earthing , before the electric supply lines or apparatus are energised .”

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UTTRAKHAND ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION 22. Concluding the order, the following action is required to be taken up by the licensee. To complete the works for providing proper earting in lines in accordance with Rule 90 of IE Rules 1956- by 31 st March 2010. To provide protective device in accordance with Rule 91(1) and anti climbing. Device in accordance with Rule 91(2) in electrical lines –by 31 st March 2010. Proposal along with Action Plan to achieve the above, giving milestones for geographical areas/ activities, to reach the Commission within one month of this order i.e. 27.11.2008 To submit a detailed report, after investing the matter of accident in village Syali as given at para 19 of this order, within one month of this order i.e. 27.11.2008. Detailed Order given in your folders

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Some of Our Prestigeous Cients : Faridabad: 1. Pyramid Control System pvt Ltd 14/4, Mathura Road, Faridabad 2. Havells India Pvt Ltd 14/3, Mathura road, Faridabad 3. Laroiya Medicare Centre Pvt Ltd 997/7C, Faridabad 4. Siya Ram Engineers Shed No. 150 Type-A, HSIIDC Sec-31, Faridabad 5. Joneja Bright Steel Pvt Ltd Plot No.239&244, sec-24, Faridabad 6. Vijay Engineering & Metal Works Plot no.165/66, Sec-24, Faridabad 7. Sawatik Automatics S.G.M Nagar, Faridabad 8. Asha Telecom Pvt ltd 17/3, Mathura Road, Faridabad 9. Prime Electronics 14/3, Mathura Road, Faridabad 10. Fine Turn 240, Sector -24, Faridabad 11. S. R. Engineers A-150 Sector-31, Faridabad 12. Saraswati Sishu School Tegoan, Ballabgarh, Faridabad 13. Dev tech Printers 14/3 Mathura Road, Faridabad 14. Iskan India, Gandhi Colony, Railway Road, Faridabad 15. SPCP Industries , A-50, 16/5, Mathura Road, Kakhanabag, Faridabad 16. Malhotra Shaving Products Pvt Ltd Factory-23/7, Sec-59, Ballabgarh, Faridabad-121004

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Some of Our Prestigeous Cients : Faridabad: 1. Lakhani India Limited Plot No.131, Sec-24, Ballabgarh, Faridabad 2. Krishna Grover Private Limited 13/7, Inside G.D.Industries, Mathura Road, Faridabad-121003, Haryana 3. Super Lamnicote Private Limited 13/7, G.D. Industrial Engineers Compound, Mathura Road, Faridabad-121003 4. Heena Off-set Priter Plot No.44, Sec-58, Ballabhgad Faridabad 5. SP Industries Plot No.80 Sec-25 Ballabhgad Faridabad Delhi :- 1. Tri Square Switchgears Private Limited A-8, DSIDC Sheds, Narera, Delhi 2. Control & Switchgear Private Limited (For Installation at South Block) 222, Okhla Industrial area, Phase-III, ND-110020 Gurgaon :- 1. Nutek India Limited (AIRCEL Tower, Baljeet Nagar, Delhi) B-27, Sector-34, Info city, Gurgaon

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Some of Our Prestigeous Cients : Noida : 1. Castrol Zone A-14 Sector 58, Noida 2. Keizer Pvt ltd D-328, Sector 63, Noida 3. U Flex Industries Ltd Plot No.-1 sector 60, Noida 4. Daltronics India Ltd. A-88 Sec 57, Noida 5. Daltronics India Ltd. E-3, Sec-59, Noida 6. Supertech Diesel Power Engineers C-89, Sector-44, Noida-201301 Rajasthan : 1. Daikin Air-Conditioning (India) Pvt, Ltd Sp-2/12, To Sp-2/15 And Sp-2/24 To Sp-2/27 RIICO New Industrial Complex (Nimrana) Distt- Alwar, Rajasthan Ghaziabad : 1. SiddhoMal paper Conversion Pvt Ltd 20 Loni roads Industrial Area, Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad

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ALFREDKIM CERTIFICATION BY CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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LIGHTER MOOD - VACANCY FOR AN ELECTRICIAN IN INDIA! Immediate requirement, No previous experience necessary. All gear supplied, pliers and screwdriver available at depot. No overtime restrictions, Salary: negotiable Working hours: till the job is done Essential requirement - fault finding skills! IMPORTANT: To get an idea of your first assignment

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Don’t let the earthing faults happen! ...simply doesn’t work!! Having faith that it won’t happen to your business

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Electricity is the best friend and worst enemy

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THANKS MANAGEMENT & STAFF OF ALFREDKIM SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS (PVT) LTD. 14/3, Bolton Compound, Matura Road, Faridabad-121003 (Haryana), India Ph : 0129 – 4158603 Mobile : +91 9810531603, 8800797774