PGC article 2

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Article 11 Declaration of Principles and State Policies :

Article 11 Declaration of Principles and State Policies Republican state – a state where the government is run by the representatives of the people

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A state wherein all government authority emanates from the people and is exercised by representatives chosen by the people Sovereignty - the supreme power to command and enforce obedience or compliance among the citizens. a. through public officials – as public servants their acts, if within the scope of their delegated powers, are the acts of the people. b. Through suffrage – electoral process, on the basis of universal suffrage

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Right of the people to revolt - the provision impliedly recognizes the right of the people to revolt against an oppressive or tyrannical government. Manifestations of Republicanism 1. Majority rule – an unwritten law of popular / democratic government. - a practicable rule of law based on reason and experience.

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Democracy assumes that in a society of rational beings, the judgment and experience of the many, be superior to the judgment and experience of the few; and hence, that the verdict of the majority will more likely be correct than that of the minority. - majority vote, two –thirds majority, three- fourths 2. Bill of Rights – a classified list of the civil and political rights of the citizens guaranteed by the constitution against governmental oppression.

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3. Government of laws and not of men ( rule of law) – from the highest official to the lowest level of the citizenry, must respect the laws. - a limited government - a principle intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary government. - where personal whims and uncontrolled discretion guide the conduct of governmental action, what exists is not a rule of law but a rein of men without law.

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- it is basic that laws must be obeyed by all and applied to everyone – without fear or favor. - without it , there is only anarchy, a dictatorship 4. Passage or repealable laws 5. State immunity from suit

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Renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy - UN Charter binding all members to “ refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state” - International Law – refers to the body of rules and principles which governs the relations of nations and their respective peoples in their relations with one another.

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- an automatic adoption of international law as part of the law of the Philippines ( doctrine of incorporation)

Supremacy of civilian authority over the military:

Supremacy of civilian authority over the military - deeply rooted political tradition inherent in a republican system of government - a safeguard against military dictatorship - President is the Commander-in-Chief of AFP (army, navy, air force,constabulary & marines) - Armed Forces of the Philippines – protector of the people and the State

Prime duty of the government:

Prime duty of the government To serve and protect the people Civil service – any service other than as soldiers. Personal military service – actual service in the military

Maintenance of peace and order:

Maintenance of peace and order Political stability and economic prosperity become attainable only when peace and order, security and a life of dignity are established

The separation of church and state shall be inviolable:

The separation of church and state shall be inviolable Establishment of religion clause 1. The state shall have no official religion 2. the state cannot set up a church, whether or not supported with public funds nor aid one religion, or prefer one religion over another

State policies:

State policies Foreign policy –basic direction underlying the conduct by a state of its affairs vis-avis those of other states. - independent foreign policy is one that is not subordinate or subject to nor dependent upon the support of another government. - must have a global outlook - must make no enemy if we can make a friend

Freedom from nuclear weapon :

Freedom from nuclear weapon Forbids the making,storing , manufacturing or testing of nuclear weapons & making the Phil. a s dumping site for radioactive wastes

Just and dynamic social order:

Just and dynamic social order - is accomplished through policies that provide adequate social services in the field of health, education, housing,etc ., promote full employment, a rising standard of living & an improved quality of life

Human dignity and human rights:

Human dignity and human rights - inherent dignity and basic moral worth of every human person, regardless of race, color , creed, origin or station of life

The family as a basic social institution :

The family as a basic social institution - strengthens the family as a basic autonomous social institution - mandates the protection of the unborn, prevents the possibility of legalization of abortion

Rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and development of moral character:

Rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and development of moral character Power of the state to regulate all schools Constitutional duty of the state to promote & protect the well being of the youth to enable them to develop physically, morally,spiritually,intellectually & socially in a wholesome & normal manner. Today’s youth , tomorrows leaders - most valuable resource & asset they are our

Role of the youth and women in nation-building :

Role of the youth and women in nation-building Right of the people to health Right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology Priority to education, science & technology, arts, culture & sports Labor as a primary social economic force

Rights of the Laborers:

Rights of the Laborers 1. Right to self-organization 2. Right to a collective bargaining 3. Right to a security of tenure 4. Right to a just and humane conditions of work

Self-reliant and independent national economy:

Self-reliant and independent national economy - effective Filipino control of the economy

Role of the private sector in the economy:

Role of the private sector in the economy - Private sector as the main engine of economic development - to encourage private enterprise & to provide incentives to needed investments, whether local or foreign Principle of subsidiarity – government should not engage in particular business activities which can be competently and efficiently undertaken by the private sector

Rural development and Agrarian Reform Program (CARP):

Rural development and Agrarian Reform Program ( CARP ) Comprehensive rural development covers all phases of rural development – economic, social, political, cultural and even industrial. - founded on the right of farmers who are landless, to own the lands they till to receive a just share of the fruits of the land.

Indigenous cultural communities:

Indigenous cultural communities - refers to non-dominant groups which wish to preserve, ethnic, religious, or linguistic traditions or characteristics markedly different from the rest of the population. - directs the state to promote their rights within the framework of national unity & development.

Role of communication andf information in nation-building:

Role of communication andf information in nation-building - includes not only print or broadcast media (radio & T.V.) but also motion pictures, advertising, cable,telephone & telegraph. - News & information to the public (Mass Media).They reach the mass of the people. - Message & ideas are exchanged & recorded. - cellphone ( newest version for private communication)

Local Government Autonomy:

Local Government Autonomy - the exercise of certain basic powers ( police power, power of eminent domain,& taxing power) by local government units

Honesty and integrity in public service:

Honesty and integrity in public service

Policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest:

Policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest

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