Introduction to Amortizing and Accreting Caps and Floors Valuation

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An amortizing cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract whereas an accreting cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract. Similarly, an amortizing floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract whereas an accreting floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract. This presentation gives an overview of amortizing and accreting cap and floor products and valuation model. See more details at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrAmortizingCap.html

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Amortizing and Accreting Caps and Floors Vaulation Alan White FinPricing

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Summary ◆ Interest Rate Amortizing and Accreting Cap and Floor Introduction ◆ The Use of Amortizing or Accreting Caps and Floors ◆ Caplet and Floorlet Payoffs ◆ Valuation ◆ Practical Notes ◆ A real world example

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Amortizing /Accreting Caps and Floors Introduction ◆ An interest rate cap is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate ceiling or cap on the floating rate payments. ◆ An interest rate cap actually consists of a series of European call options caplets on interest rates. ◆ An amortizing cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract. ◆ An accreting cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Amortizing /Accreting Caps and Floors Introduction Cont ◆ An interest rate floor is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate “floor ” on the floating rate payments. ◆ An interest rate floor consists of a series of European put options floorlets on interest rates. ◆ An amortizing floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract. ◆ An accreting floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor The Use of Amortizing /Accreting Caps and Floors ◆ Amortizing caps and floors are primarily used to hedge loans whose principal declines on a scheduled basis. ◆ An accreting cap or floor is primarily used to hedge construction loans whose principal increases on a scheduled basis to meet the expanding working capital requirements. ◆ Amortizing caps are frequently purchased by issuers of floating rate debt where the loan principal declines during the life. ◆ Accreting caps are frequently purchased by issuers of floating rate debt where the loan principal increases during the life.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor The Use of Amortizing /Accreting Caps and Floors ◆ Amortizing floors are frequently purchased by purchasers of floating rate debt where the loan principal declines during the life. ◆ Amortizing floors are frequently purchased by purchasers of floating rate debt where the loan principal increases during the life. ◆ The amortizing/accreting cap holders wish to protect themselves from the increased financing costs that would result from fluctuation in interest rates. ◆ The amortizing/accreting floor holders wish to protect themselves from the loss of income that would result from a decrease in interest rates.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Caplet Payoff ◆ The payoff of a caplet ∗ ∗ − 0 where N – notional R – realized interest rate K – strike – day count fraction. ◆ Payoff diagram -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Payoff interest rates

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Floorlet Payoff ◆ The payoff of a floorlet is given by ∗ ∗ − 0 where N – notional R – realized interest rate K – strike – day count fraction. ◆ Payoff diagram -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Payoff interest rates

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Amortizing Cap Valuation ◆ The analytics is similar to a vanilla cap and floor except the principal amount used by each period may be different. ◆ The present value of a cap is given by 0 Φ 1 − Φ 2 1 where 0 – the discount factor −1 −1 −1/ – the forward rate for period −1 . Φ – the accumulative normal distribution function 12 ln⁡ ±0.5 2

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Valuation ◆ The present value of a floor is given by 0 Φ− 2 − Φ− 1 1 where 0 – the discount factor −1 −1 −1/ – the forward rate for period −1 . Φ – the accumulative normal distribution function 12 ln⁡ ±0.5 2

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Practical Notes ◆ Amortizing and accreting caps are valued via the Black model in the market. ◆ The forward rate is simply compounded. ◆ The first key to value a cap is to generate the cash flows. The cash flow generation is based on the start time end time and payment frequency plus calendar holidays business convention e.g. modified following following etc. and whether sticky month end. ◆ Then you need to construct interest zero rate curve by bootstrapping the most liquid interest rate instruments in the market. The most common used yield curve is continuously compounded.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor Practical Notes ◆ Another key for accurately pricing an outstanding cap/floor is to construct an arbitrage-free volatility surface. ◆ The accrual period is calculated according to the start date and end date of a cash flow plus day count convention ◆ The formula above doesn ’t contain the last live reset cash flow whose reset date is less than valuation date but payment date is greater than valuation date. The reset value is 0 ∗ ∗ − 0 for cap ∗ ∗ − 0 for floor which should be added into the above present value.

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Amortizing Cap/Floor A Real World Example Cap Terms and Conditions Notional Schedule Buy Sell Sell 9000000 2/6/2015 Cap or Floor Cap 8785714.29 3/31/2015 Strike 0.025 8464285.72 6/30/2015 Trade Date 2/6/2015 8142857.15 9/30/2015 Start Date 2/6/2015 7821428.58 12/31/2015 Maturity Date 2/4/2019 7500000.01 3/31/2016 Currency USD 7178571.44 6/30/2016 Day Count dcAct360 6857142.87 9/30/2016 Rate type Float 6535714.3 12/30/2016 Notional 9000000 6214285.73 3/31/2017 Pay Receive Pay 5892857.16 6/30/2017 Payment Frequency 1M 5571428.59 9/29/2017 Index Tenor 1M 5250000.02 12/29/2017 Index Type LIBOR 4928571.45 3/30/2018

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Thanks You can find more details at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrAmortizingCap.html

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