Interest Rate Swap Valuation Practical Guide

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An interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange future interest rate payments over a set period of time. It consists of a series of payment periods, called swaplets. The most popular form of interest rate swaps is the vanilla swaps that involve the exchange of a fixed interest rate for a floating rate, or vice versa. There are two legs associated with each party: a fixed leg and a floating leg. Swaps are OTC derivatives that bear counterparty credit risk beside interest rate risk. Interest rate swaps are the most popular OTC derivatives that are generally used to manage exposure to fluctuations in interest rates. Swaps can be also used to obtain a marginally lower interest rate. Thus they are often utilized by a firm that can borrow money easily at one type of interest rate but prefers a different type. They also allow investors to adjust interest rate exposure and offset interest rate risks. Speculators use swaps to speculate on the movement of interest rates. More and more swaps are cleared through central counterparties nowadays (CCPs). This presentation gives an overview of interest rate swap product and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrSwap.html

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Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

Interest Rate Swap Vaulation Pratical Guide Alan White FinPricing http://www.finpricing.com

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Swap Summary ◆ Interest Rate Swap Introduction ◆ The Use of Interest Rate Swap ◆ Swap or Swaplet Payoff ◆ Valuation ◆ Practical Notes ◆ A real world example

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Swap Interest Rate Swap Introduction ◆ An interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange future interest rate payments over a set period of time. ◆ An interest rate swap consists of a series of payment periods called swaplets. ◆ Vanilla Interest Rate Swaps involve the exchange of a fixed interest rate for a floating rate or vice versa. ◆ There are two legs associated with each party: a fixed leg and a floating leg. ◆ Swaps are OTC derivatives that bear counterparty credit risk.

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Swap The Use of Interest Rate Swap ◆ Swaps are the most popular OTC derivatives that are generally used to manage exposure to fluctuations in interest rates. ◆ Swaps can also be used to obtain a marginally lower interest rate. Thus they are often utilized by a firm that can borrow money easily at one type of interest rate but prefers a different type. ◆ Swaps allow investors to adjust interest rate exposure and offset interest rate risk. ◆ Speculators use swaps to speculate on the movement of interest rates. ◆ More and more swaps are cleared through central counterparties CCPs nowadays.

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Swap Swap or Swaplet Payoff ◆ From the fixed rate payer perspective the payoff of a swap or swaplet at payment date T is given by − where ◆ N- the notional ◆ – accrual period in years e.g. a 3 month period ≈ 3/12 0.25 years ◆ R – the fixed rate in simply compounding. ◆ F – the realized floating rate in simply compounding ◆ From the fixed rate receiver perspective the payoff of a swap or swaplet at payment date T is given by −

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Swap Valuation ◆ The present value of a fixed rate leg is given by 1 where t is the valuation date and is the discount factor. ◆ The present value of a floating leg is given by + 1 where −1 −1/ is the forward rate and s is the floating spread. ◆ The present value of an interest rate swap can expressed as ◆ From the fixed rate receiver perspective − ◆ From the fixed rate payer perspective −

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Swap Practical Notes ◆ First of all you need to generate accurate cash flows for each leg. The cash flow generation is based on the start time end time and payment frequency of the leg plus calendar holidays business convention e.g. modified following following etc. and whether sticky month end. ◆ We assume that accrual periods are the same as reset periods and payment dates are the same as accrual end dates in the above formulas for brevity. But in fact they are different due to different market conventions. For example index periods can overlap each other but swap cash flows are not allowed to overlap. ◆ The accrual period is calculated according to the start date and end date of a cash flow plus day count convention

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Swap Practical Notes Cont ◆ The forward rate should be computed based on the reset period index reset date index start date index end date that are determined by index definition such as index tenor and convention. it is simply compounded. ◆ Sometimes there is a floating spread added on the top of the floating rate in the floating leg. ◆ The formula above doesn ’t contain the last live reset cash flow whose reset date is less than valuation date but payment date is greater than valuation date. The reset value is 0 0 0 where 0 is the reset rate.

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Swap Practical Notes Cont ◆ The present value of the reset cash flow should be added into the present value of the floating leg. ◆ Some dealers take bid-offer spreads into account. In this case one should use the bid curve constructed from bid quotes for forwarding and the offer curve built from offer quotes for discounting.

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Swap A Real World Example Leg 1 Specification Leg 2 Specification Currency USD Currency USD Day Count dcAct360 Day Count dcAct360 Leg Type Fixed Leg Type Float Notional 5000000 Notional 5000000 Pay Receive Receive Pay Receive Pay Payment Frequency 1M Payment Frequency 1M Start Date 7/1/2015 Start Date 7/1/2015 End Date 3/1/2023 End Date 3/1/2023 Fixed Rate 0.0455 Spread 0 Index Specification Index Type LIBOR Index Tenor 1M Index Day Count dcAct360

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Thanks You can find more details at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrSwap.html

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