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Premium member Presentation Transcript Business Process Analysis and Design – Importance of Having a Common Language Between Business and IT: Business Process Analysis and Design – Importance of Having a Common Language Between Business and IT Alan McSweeneyObjectives: March 25, 2011 2 Objectives Provide an introduction to process design/specification and the potential benefits of using a visual process design approach such as BPMN to enable business and IT users understand how process should operateBusiness Process Analysis/Design: March 25, 2011 3 Business Process Analysis/Design There is a continuum from business process analysis and design to business process development and implementation to business process operation and management Processes exist to implement requirements Processes define the functionality to be provided by systems Processes also link the functionality of the systems to external manual operational components Processes govern the development and implementation work Business Requirements Processes Define How Systems Should Operate Processes Govern Solution Design, Development. Implementation Processes Deliver on Business RequirementsProcess : March 25, 2011 4 Process A process describes a sequence or flow of activities within an organisation with the objective of performing work Process best depicted graphically containing flow elements - set of activities, events, gateways and sequence flows - that define the execution of the processComplete View of Systems and Processes: March 25, 2011 5 Complete View of Systems and Processes External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Extended Application System Component System Component System Component External Component External Component External Component Core ApplicationComplete View of Systems and Processes: March 25, 2011 6 Complete View of Systems and Processes System Component System Component System Component External Component External Component External Component Automated Process Automated Process Automated Process External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Manual Process Manual Process External Manual Interaction External Manual Interaction Manual Process Manual ProcessCombination of Automated and Manual Processes: March 25, 2011 7 Combination of Automated and Manual Processes Automated Process Automated Process Automated Process Manual Process Manual Process Manual Process Manual Process Extended Application Core ApplicationComplete View of Systems and Processes: March 25, 2011 8 Complete View of Systems and Processes Overall solution operates with a mix of automated and manual processes in a structured or ad-hoc manner o deliver the required results Understanding the overall set of processes and their operation is crucial to successful results Need to see the entire picture to understand how a solution should operate Systems/applications are just one part of this universe Unambiguous definition of processes is required Processes that are to be automated define the scope of the development and implementation workSolution Design and Implementation Sequence: March 25, 2011 9 Solution Design and Implementation Sequence Defines where the business wants to go Business need identifies solutions that will allow delivery of plan Defines the benefits to be achieved by the solution Defines the detailed requirements of the solution Defines the processes that will be implemented by the solution Defines the solution design to implement the processes Creates a detailed technical design for implementation Implements the detailed designSolution Design and Implementation Sequence: March 25, 2011 10 Solution Design and Implementation Sequence }Need a Single Language – Avoid the Tower of Babel and Project Failure: March 25, 2011 11 Need a Single Language – Avoid the Tower of Babel and Project Failure Business User Business/ Process Analyst Solution Architect Technical Architect/ Designer ? Developer Team ? ? ? ? ? !?Weaknesses in Business Analysis Capabilities and Competencies at the Root of Many Project Failures: March 25, 2011 12 Weaknesses in Business Analysis Capabilities and Competencies at the Root of Many Project Failures Business Needs Not Met Opportunities Lost Investment Wasted Inadequate Business Case, Undefined Problem/Need Business Benefits Not Measured Poor Analysis Practices Business Requirements Not Captured Poor Requirements Poor Strategic Alignment Poor Focus on Business Needs Inadequate Resource Allocation and Prioritisation Inadequate Business Involvement Poor Solution Design Inadequately Explored Solution Options Solution Design Not Aligned to Business Needs Large Project, Complex, Difficult Changes and Processes Large Project Team and Multiple Stakeholders Size/Capacity/Complexity Uncertainly/ Ambiguity Unproven Technology Dynamic, Changing EnvironmentAnalysis-Related Causes of Failures: March 25, 2011 13 Analysis-Related Causes of Failures Business Needs Not Met Opportunities Lost Investment Wasted Inadequate Business Case, Undefined Problem/Need Business Benefits Not Measured Poor Analysis Practices Business Requirements Not Captured Poor Requirements Poor Strategic Alignment Poor Focus on Business Needs Inadequate Resource Allocation and Prioritisation Inadequate Business Involvement Poor Solution Design Inadequately Explored Solution Options Solution Design Not Aligned to Business Needs Large Project, Complex, Difficult Changes and Processes Large Project Team and Multiple Stakeholders Size/Capacity/Complexity Uncertainly/ Ambiguity Unproven Technology Dynamic, Changing EnvironmentSmooth Flow From Requirements to Processes to Design and Implementation: March 25, 2011 14 Smooth Flow From Requirements to Processes to Design and Implementation Business User Business/ Process Analyst Solution Architect Technical Architect/ Designer This is What I Want The System to Do I Understand. These Are The Processes Needed to Meet the Requirements Developer Team This is The Design of The Overall System I Understand The Processes You Have Described This is The Detail of The Implementation of The Solution This is The Solution Being Developed The Solution Being Developed Delivers the Required Processes The Solution is What I WantWho Designs Processes?: March 25, 2011 15 Who Designs Processes? There can be multiple inconsistent approaches to designing processes, done by End users Business unit managers Business analysts Process analysts System analysts Technical team leads DevelopersWhat Can Go Wrong With Process Design?: March 25, 2011 16 What Can Go Wrong With Process Design? Inconsistent or ambiguous process design notation/ language Uncertainty/lack of specificity Branching/decision points not identified Complexity missing/not captured Too much inappropriate detail Using tool or approach that does not work Lack of understanding by business usersEnsuring Process Design/Specification Works: March 25, 2011 17 Ensuring Process Design/Specification Works Convince skeptical business and IT users that it can deliver real benefits Adopt an integrated approach to using process design/specification including a set of internal organisation standards Training and mentoring Active involvement, monitoring, managementNeed to Balance Process Design/Specification Complexity: March 25, 2011 18 Need to Balance Process Design/Specification Complexity Simplicity – Easy for Business Users to Understand Consider maintaining two levels of process design/ specification High-level for business users Detailed low-level for development/implementation Graphics are better than pure text Complexity – Unambiguous Detail for Implementation and OperationProblems with Process Design/Specification: March 25, 2011 19 Problems with Process Design/Specification Absence of recognition of the importance of process design/specification within solution design lifecycle Focus on just information technology aspects of process design and operation rather than the entire process landscape Focus on just IT doing the process design Absence of structured consistent approach to process design Absence of process representation graphical approach Absence of skills, experience or training Absence of partnership between business and IT functionBusiness Process Analysis/Design: March 25, 2011 20 Business Process Analysis/Design Business needs to understand what processes it is agreeing to, how these processes will deliver requirements, how the processes will operate, who will be responsible and what resources will be required IT needs to understand what is to be developed, delivered and implemented unambiguously Need to have a process definition and representation approach and language that fulfils both requirements at the same timeBusiness Processes: March 25, 2011 21 Business Processes Business process design defines what is to be done and who is to do it IT can translate this into system details, the “how” Delivery of an overall process can be a mix of automated, system lead and manual activities and tasks Process design is a key element of overall solution design and implementation Processes turn the requirements into operational factsProcess Design: March 25, 2011 22 Process Design Need to have a process design language and approach that fulfils the requirements of both IT and the business at the same time Need a process design language and approach that can be understood by the business and provides the rigour required of the IT Process design can be as simple as a narrative, flowchart or some other graphical representation Need to balance the requirements of the business and IT Simplicity and ease of use promotes ease of understanding Ambiguity/lack of detail leads to misunderstanding Too much complexity - takes time, alienates the business, loses momentum, costs a lot, delays decisions, induces analysis paralysis To little complexity - causes doubt, can lead to a disconnect between what the business thinks it is getting and what IT deliversBusiness Process Landscape: March 25, 2011 23 Business Process Landscape Business process design is one element of the business process landscape Design Implementation and operation Management Continuum from business process analysis and design to business process development and implementation to business process operation and management Can look for a solution that crosses entire continuum However, it is very, very difficult to go to fully automated BPM in one step Substantial investment with diminishing returns Need to select an approach that delivers most benefits and need to approach delivery incrementallySpectrum of Process Design, Implementation and Operation Options: March 25, 2011 24 Spectrum of Process Design, Implementation and Operation Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Consistent Use of a Standardised Approach and Language to Unambiguously Describe and Define Business Processes Execution, Measurement, Monitoring and Control of Both Automated and Non-automated Business Processes to Achieve Consistent, Targeted Results Aligned With The Organisation’s Strategic Goals } Incremental Set of Steps To Achieve: Maintenance of Reusable Process Library Linkage from Process design to Publication and Implementation Process Management Operational Process Measurement Process Reporting and OptimisationProcess Design/Specification Options: March 25, 2011 25 Process Design/Specification Options Spectrum of options from simple to complex Paper/whiteboards/flip-charts/Post-It notes PowerPoint/Word/Excel/other tool Visio (flow charting) Visio Using BPMN Add-on BPA tool BPMS toolProcess Design, Implementation and Operation Journey: March 25, 2011 26 Process Design, Implementation and Operation Journey Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High You Have to Start Here Before You Can End HereProcess Design, Implementation and Operation Journey: March 25, 2011 27 Process Design, Implementation and Operation Journey Moving to a state of Complete Automated Business Process Management is very, very hard You need to start with a structured approach to describing processes that works and that is accepted and used by all participants and stakeholders Essential building block and foundation for success Start small to deliver benefits in a short period of time and build on success Focus on creating understanding and approachElements of a Process Design/Documentation: March 25, 2011 28 Elements of a Process Design/Documentation Process Triggers – what initiates the process Process Outcomes – what are the expected outcomes of the process Pre-Conditions – what must have happened before the process can start Pre-Requisites – what must be in place before the process can start Inputs – what the process needs to operate Processing – what the process does Dependencies – what the process is dependent on Outputs – what the process generates Timelines – what are the expected process times Reporting Requirements/Performance Measures – how the process should be measured and what measures should be generated Roles and Responsibilities – who is involved in the process Skills and Capabilities – what skills are required of the process participants Requirements Being Delivered (Traceability) – what business requirements are being fulfilled by the process Issues Identified/Outstanding – any issues not clarified Assumptions – any assumptions made in the process designBusiness Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape: March 25, 2011 29 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape Process Library Operational Process Usage Data Business Process 1 Business Process 2 Business Process 3 Process Strategy Design and Development Business Process Design and Development Process Usage Analysis Business Process Modification Process KPI Definition Process Templates Process PublicationBusiness Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape: March 25, 2011 30 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Landscape Process Library Operational Process Usage Data Business Process 1 Business Process 2 Business Process 3 Process Strategy Design and Development Business Process Design and Development Process Usage Analysis Business Process Modification Process KPI Definition Process Templates Process PublicationBusiness Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Logical Components: March 25, 2011 31 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework – Logical Components Strategy, Management and Governance Design and Implementation Optimisation Operation and Measurement Technology InfrastructureBusiness Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework: March 25, 2011 32 Business Process Management, Governance, Implementation and Operational Framework Start With Realistically Achievable Objectives … … Before Trying to Move to an All-encompassing SolutionFocus on the Objective …: March 25, 2011 33 Focus on the Objective … … Which is to develop an approach to process design and specification that meets both business and technology stakeholder requirementsProcess Representation Diagrams, Maps and Models: March 25, 2011 34 Process Representation Diagrams, Maps and Models Diagrams Process diagram often depicts simple notation of the basic workflow of a process Depicts the major elements of a process flow, but omits the minor details which are not necessary for understanding the overall flow of work Maps More precision than a diagram More detail about process and important relationships to other elements such as performers (actors), events, results Provide a comprehensive view of all of the major components of the process Models Represents the performance of what is being modelled Needs greater precision, data about the process and about the factors that affect its performance Often done using tools that provide simulation and reporting capability to analyse and understand the processProcess Attributes and Characteristics: March 25, 2011 35 Process Attributes and Characteristics Inputs/Outputs Events/Results) Value Add Roles/Organisations Data/Information Probabilities Queuing Transmission Time Wait Time Arrival Patterns/Distributions Costs (indirect and direct Entry Rules Exit Rules Branching Rules Join Rules Work/Handling Time Batching Servers (number of people available to perform tasks) Attributes and characteristics that describe the properties, behaviour, purpose and other elements of the process Process attributes are captured in a tool in order to organise, analyse and manage an organisation’s portfolio of processesPurpose of Process Modelling: March 25, 2011 36 Purpose of Process Modelling A model is rarely a complete and full representation of the actual process Focus on representing those attributes of the process that support continued analysis from one or more perspectives Objective is to create a representation of the process that describes it accurately and sufficiently for the task at hand Understanding the business process through the creation of the model Creating a visible representation and establishing a commonly shared perspective Analysing process performance and defining and validating changes “To Be” model is an expression of the target process state and specifies the requirements for the supporting resources that enable effective business operationsPurpose of Process Representation Models: March 25, 2011 37 Purpose of Process Representation Models Models are simplified representations that facilitate understanding of that which is being studied and making decisions about it Mechanism for understanding, documenting, analysing, designing, automating and measuring business activity as well as measuring the resources that support the activity and the interactions between the business activity and its environment For process managed business, process models are the primary means for Measuring performance against standards Determining opportunities for change Expressing the desired end state preceding a change effortReasons for Process Design and Modelling: March 25, 2011 38 Reasons for Process Design and Modelling To document an existing process clearly To use as a training aide To use as an assessment against standards and compliance requirements To understand how a process will perform under varying loads or in response to some anticipated change As the basis for analysis in identifying opportunities for improvement To design a new process or new approach for an existing process To provide a basis for communication and discussion To describe requirements for a new business operationBenefits of Process Design and Modelling: March 25, 2011 39 Benefits of Process Design and Modelling Models are relatively fast, easy and inexpensive to complete Models are easy to understand (when compared to other forms of documentation) Models provide a baseline for measurement Models facilitate process simulation and impact analysis Models leverage various standards and a common set of techniquesProcess Design and Modelling Standards and Notations: March 25, 2011 40 Process Design and Modelling Standards and Notations Range of number of process design, modelling and notational standards and techniques Models provide a language for describing and communicating as-is and to-be process information Like all new languages must be learned Benefits of using a standards based approach A common symbology, language and technique which facilitate communication and understanding Standards-based models provide common and consistently defined processes definitions which eases the process of design, analysis and measurement and facilitates model reuse An ability to leverage modelling tools based on common standards and notations An ability to import and export models created in various tools for reuse in other tools Some tool vendors are leveraging standards and notations for developing the ability to be exported from a modelling notation to an execution language (for example BPMN to BPEL - BPEL4WS)Process Representation Standards and Notations: March 25, 2011 41 Process Representation Standards and Notations Some commonly or less commonly used approaches Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) Flow Charting Swim Lanes Event Process Chain (EPC) Value Chain Unified Modelling Language (UML) IDEF-0 LOVEM-E SIPOC Systems Dynamics Value Stream MappingBusiness Process Modelling Notation (BPMN): March 25, 2011 42 Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) Widely used and supported standard for business process modelling Provides a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD) Uses a flowcharting technique similar to activity diagrams from Unified Modelling Language (UML) Can output BPMN to Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) Standard executable language for specifying interactions with Web Services Emerging standardFlow Charting: March 25, 2011 43 Flow Charting Simple type of diagram that represents a process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds and their order by connecting these with arrows Widely usedSwim Lanes: March 25, 2011 44 Swim Lanes Swim lanes are an addition to the boxes and arrows process flow view of flow-charting that show how the work flows across organisational units or is handed-off from one role to another Overall process is divided into lanes, with one lane for each person, group or subprocess Processes and decisions are grouped by placing them in lanes Arranged horizontally or vertically and are used for grouping the sub-processes according to the responsibilities of those swim lanesEvent Process Chain (EPC): March 25, 2011 45 Event Process Chain (EPC) An EPC is an ordered graph of events and functions Provides various connectors that allow alternative and parallel execution of processes Tasks (activities) are followed by outcomes (events) of the task, developing a process model EPC method was developed within the framework of ARIS (BPM toolset) EPC elements Event - describe under what circumstances a function or a process works or which state a function or a process results in Function - model the tasks or activities Organisation Unit - determine which person or organisation within the structure of an enterprise is responsible for a specific function Information, Material or Resource Object - portray objects in the real world Logical Connector - logical relationships between elements in the control flow Logical Relationships - Branch/Merge, Fork/Join and OR Control Flow - connects events with functions, process paths or logical connectors creating chronological sequence and logical interdependencies between them Information Flow - show the connection between functions and input or output data Organisation Unit Assignment - show the connection between an organisation unit and the function it is responsible for Process Path - show the connection from or to other processesValue Chain: March 25, 2011 46 Value Chain Value chain notation is used to demonstrate a single continuous flow from left to right of the sub-processes that directly contribute to producing value for the organisation’s customers (clients/constituents) Value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry Chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of added values of all activitiesUnified Modelling Language (UML): March 25, 2011 47 Unified Modelling Language (UML) UML provides a standard set of diagramming techniques and notations primarily for describing information systems requirements Primarily used for systems analysis and design Can use UML activity diagrams for business process modelling UML can be very verbose Very development and system oriented and not aimed at business users or overall set of processes needed to operate a systemIDEF-0 (Integration Definition for Function Modelling): March 25, 2011 48 IDEF-0 (Integration Definition for Function Modelling) Function modelling methodology for describing manufacturing functions Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) that was developed by the US Air Force for documenting manufacturing processes Part of the IDEF family of modelling languages in software engineering IDEF0 produces a function model that is structured representation of the functions, activities or processes IDEF1 produces an information model that represents structure and semantics of information IDEF2 produces a dynamics model that represents time-varying behavioural characteristicsLOVEM-E (Line of Visibility Engineering Method - Enhanced): March 25, 2011 49 LOVEM-E ( Line of Visibility Engineering Method - Enhanced) Notation set and a modelling technique that was developed as part of IBM’s Business Process Reengineering Methodology Based on the process path management concept Introduces concepts of the customer encounter and the collaborative nature of work between external and internal parties and the supporting information systems Not widely usedSIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer): March 25, 2011 50 SIPOC ( Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer) Style of process documentation used in Six SigmaSystems Dynamics: March 25, 2011 51 Systems Dynamics Approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time Deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that affect the behaviour of the entire system Systems Dynamics models are “activity on arrow” diagrams rather than “activity on node” diagrams Useful in developing dynamic lifecycle type models that focus on the overall business system’s performance and the impact of changing the key variables that affect overall performanceValue Stream Mapping: March 25, 2011 52 Value Stream Mapping Technique used in Lean Manufacturing Expresses the physical environment and flow of materials and products in a manufacturing environment Used to analyse the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or serviceProcess Modelling Quality: March 25, 2011 53 Process Modelling Quality Most process analysis and design efforts require the use of models to describe what is happening during the process Useful to have some standards and measures of quality as it relates to process modelling Quality of model defined by its accuracy, amount of detail and completeness Can have multiple versions or iterations of models are created over time to capture more detail and improve the quality of the model During the modelling of a process, several disconnections, restrictions and/or barriers may become apparent Items should also be noted on the model as well as any other information discovered that will help create a common understanding of the current stateRequirements of a Process Design Model: March 25, 2011 54 Requirements of a Process Design Model The business environment including the customers, suppliers, external events or market pressures that effect or interact with the process The organisational structure which includes the hierarchical or functional view of the organisation and how the people work together (this information helps understand who the key decision makers are within the process) The functional or departmental structure of the organisation which explains how the functions or departments work together in the process The business rules which control the decisions that are made during the process and workflow The activities or actions that take place within the process and who does those actionsProcess Design and Definition Language: March 25, 2011 55 Process Design and Definition Language BPMN offers the most effective approach to process analysis, design and definitionBPMN as a Common Process Language: March 25, 2011 56 BPMN as a Common Process Language Two layers of complexity for business process design Core set of BPMN process representation diagram elements Extended set of BPMN process representation diagram elements What BPMN is not: Organisation structure design language Data model and data flow design language – does contain some data modelling elements System functional flow design language BPMN diagrams can be complex BPMN V2.0 (latest version) has a lot of elements Keep it simple and easy to understand Add appropriate complexity through refinement and drill-down Focus on getting the process description right Complexity and rigour of BPMN is related to the ability to create Business Process Execution Language (BPEL - BPEL4WS) – you probably do not intend to use this featureTypes of Process: March 25, 2011 57 Types of Process Standard Process (Orchestration Process) defines the flow of activities between participants Choreography - exchange of information (Messages) between participantsBPMN Language Structure: March 25, 2011 58 BPMN Language StructureSwimlanes and Pools: March 25, 2011 59 Swimlanes and Pools Swim lanes are a visual means for organising and categorising process activities Used to demonstrate hand-offs between functions/roles/business units Show process sequence Show cross-functional process flow Pool – represents major participants in a process with separate pools for different organisations or major business units Lane – contained within pools Organise and categorise process activities within a pool according to function or role All other BPMN diagram elements are placed within swimlanes and poolsSwimlanes and Pools: March 25, 2011 60 Swimlanes and Pools Good at showing who does what, when and in response to what Adds a dimension not available in standard flow-charting Shows responsibilities Allows identification and elimination of duplicate tasksFlow Objects: March 25, 2011 61 Flow ObjectsFlow Objects: March 25, 2011 62 Flow Objects Define the flow of the process Activities - work performed within a business process Task – unit of work Sub-Process – a set of self-contained activities collapsed within process representation for ease of understanding Transaction – a sub-process that must be completed or undone if not completed Events - something that happens Start – acts as a trigger for a process/sub-process and takes an input only End – represents the result of a process/sub-process and generates an output only Intermediate - represents something that happens between the start and end events Gateways - determine splitting and merging of paths within process depending on the conditions Exclusive – where the sequence slow can take only one of two or more alternative paths Inclusive – where the sequence slow can take one, more than one or all of two or more alternative paths and results from paths must be subsequently merged Parallel – multiple parallel paths are defined Complex – complex behaviours can be definedFlow Objects - Graphics: March 25, 2011 63 Flow Objects - GraphicsActivities – Detailed Specification: March 25, 2011 64 Activities – Detailed Specification Classified by Task Type Service – automated application Send – send a message to an external participant Receive – wait for a Message to arrive from an external Participant User – human performs the task with the assistance of an application and scheduled through a task manager Script – executed by a business process engine Manual – not managed by any business process engine. Business Rule – provide input to a Business Rules Engine and get the output of calculations Process or Sub-Process Embedded – sub-process embedded within a process Event – triggered by an event Called – pre-defined process that can be called Looping Simple Multiple in Parallel Multiple in Sequence Calling – External Sub-Process Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)Activities: March 25, 2011 65 Activities Looping Symbol Task Border Shows if Called/Sub-Process Top Left Symbol Identifies Task Type Rewind Symbol Used to Indicate Transaction Backout (“Compensation”)Activities – Graphics for Combinations of Task Type and Loop Type: March 25, 2011 66 Activities – Graphics for Combinations of Task Type and Loop TypeActivities – Graphics for Sub-Processes: March 25, 2011 67 Activities – Graphics for Sub-ProcessesEvents: March 25, 2011 68 Events Simple Start Intermediate End Triggered Start Intermediate Inward Direction “Catching” Outward Direction “Throwing” End Triggers (Not All Apply to All Events) Message Timer Conditional Signal Multiple Multiple in Parallel Error Escalation Compensation (Backout of Transaction) Link Cancel TerminateEvents: March 25, 2011 69 Events Single Light Border Indicates Start Event Double Light Border and Hollow Symbol Indicates Intermediate Inwardly Directed Event Single Dark Border Indicates End Event Symbol Indicates Trigger Type Double Light Border and Filled Symbol Indicates Intermediate Outwardly Directed EventEvents - Graphics for Combinations of Type, Direction and Trigger: March 25, 2011 70 Events - Graphics for Combinations of Type, Direction and TriggerGateways: March 25, 2011 71 Gateways Control the execution of the process Do not represent work being done Gateways represent decisions/branching (exclusive, inclusive, and complex), merging, forking and joining Parallel gateways synchronise/combine and create parallel flows Event-based gateways represents a branching point in the process where the alternative paths that follow the gateway are based on events that occurGateways - Graphics for Types: March 25, 2011 72 Gateways - Graphics for TypesSample Parallel Gateway: March 25, 2011 73 Sample Parallel GatewayArtifacts: March 25, 2011 74 Artifacts Used to add information into the process model/diagram Make the process model/diagram more readable Data Object – shows which data is required by or produced in an activity Group – used to group different activities to highlight sections Annotation – adds text to a diagramArtifacts: March 25, 2011 75 Artifacts Grouping of Process Elements Annotation CommentData: March 25, 2011 76 Data One requirement of process design/modelling is to be able to model the items (physical or information items) that are created, manipulated, and used during the execution of a process Data inputs Data outputs Data stores – persistent Collections – set of data, input or outputsData: March 25, 2011 77 DataExtended BPMN Attributes: March 25, 2011 78 Extended BPMN Attributes BPMN diagram elements have many extended attributes that are not part of the core process definition These are used when creating a process repository Used when exporting BPMN process to XML Activity attributes isForCompensation loopCharacteristics Resources SequenceFlow InputOutputSpecification Properties BoundaryEventRefs DataInputAssociations DataOutputAssociations StartQuantity CompletionQuantity …BPMN Usage Options: March 25, 2011 79 BPMN Usage Options Consistent Approach to Business Process Analysis and Description Complete Automated Business Process Management Implementation Time, Cost, Resource Requirements, Complexity, Difficulty, Risks Low High Basic BPMN Processing Diagramming Allows You to Start Here BPMN Can Grow to Enable ThisSample Order Processing and Payment Authorisation Process Definition: March 25, 2011 80 Sample Order Processing and Payment Authorisation Process DefinitionSample Mortgage Approval Process Definition: March 25, 2011 81 Sample Mortgage Approval Process DefinitionSample Incident Management Process Definition: March 25, 2011 82 Sample Incident Management Process DefinitionSample Credit Review and Approval Process Definition: March 25, 2011 83 Sample Credit Review and Approval Process DefinitionSample Customer Quotation Request Process Definition: March 25, 2011 84 Sample Customer Quotation Request Process DefinitionSample Order Fulfilment Process Definition: March 25, 2011 85 Sample Order Fulfilment Process DefinitionSample Bank Account Opening Process Definition: March 25, 2011 86 Sample Bank Account Opening Process DefinitionSummary: March 25, 2011 87 Summary Process design/specification is a key element of solution design Processes consist of both automated and manual components working together A graphical process design/specification language is useful to represent processes and to assist in a common understanding by both business and IT BPMN is the emerging process design/specification language BPMN offers the rigour to create detailed process designs/specifications BPMN can be just a process design/specification language or a can be part of a complete automated Business Process Management initiativeMore Information: March 25, 2011 88 More Information Alan McSweeney email@example.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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