Combat-Sports-Nutrition-eBook

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Get More Out Of Your Combat Sports Training! This Book Explains How You Can Use Nutrition To Boost Your Training, Increase Recovery And Help You Become A Better Combat Sports Athlete.

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Combat sports nutrition 1

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Combat sports nutrition 1 Preface Welcome to combat sports nutrition the comprehensive book which will provide you with an in depth understanding of all the relevant nutritional information to help you succeed both in and out of the arena. I have been studying nutrition formally for 10 years and my interest extends far beyond this. Throughout my university life I have trained coached and competed often whilst completing a degree in health science nutrition exercise science and biochemistry an honours research year in molecular nutrition a master’s degree in dietetics and am now in the process of completing my PhD focusing on ‘Making weight for combat sports’. During this time I have had to balance study and work commitments as well as training 6-7 days a week and competing thus have gained unique experience and perspective as a real life athlete scientist and coach. Currently I have found myself in a position in which I get to work with the many of the best judo boxing taekwondo and wrestling athletes in Australia. I also routinely work with Brazilian Jiu jitsu athletes MMA fighters and a world championship kickboxer. As fighters we all know that nutrition is important for optimal performance and compared with many other athletes I believe that fighters possess a good understanding of this. However I do believe that many fighters are misguided follow the wrong advice and struggle to differentiate between credible useful information based on science and experience and that which is part of a passing fad or a product sales pitch. I’ve heard many combat sport athletes over the years dismiss mainstream science and offer comments such as “what would a scientist know They don’t fight” or “well that information might be correct for the general population but I’m different”. Rest assured that the information presented in this book is based on credible research tried and tested principles and is in line with the strategies I use with the athletes I work with. This means that not only has it undergone extensive peer review in academic journals it has also been tested by me personally in training/competition and used with success with fighters I work with. Nutrition is a funny thing as on the one hand it is incredibly complex and intricate yet quite intuitive and good nutrition can be achieved by following common sense. However the term common sense is not a very clear one as what seems obvious and ‘common sense’ to me someone who has studied the physiology of digestion and absorption and the biochemistry of nutrition is going to be different to someone whose primary source of nutrition information is the guy at the supplement shop and advertising. Therefore in order to gain the most from this book and set yourself up for success I strongly suggest beginning by reading it from start to finish. By this stage you should have a good understanding of the interplay between nutrition health and performance. You can then use it as a reference referring to the relevant sections as you implement changes to your diet. It is difficult to say what the most important aspects of nutrition are however I’ve tried to present the information in a sequential manner which lays down foundations and builds upon these. Each chapter details a key them i.e. protein carbohydrates fluid etc. and I wanted to make all the information applicable and relevant however I know many people like to know the how and why in addition to the what. Keeping this in mind I have included many reference tables some basic biochemistry and physiology which I think is interesting helps provide a greater understanding for the reader and to help provide context to the recommendations and also to provide better value for those

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Combat sports nutrition 2 who purchase the book so that it can be a one stop resource. Last but not least I hope you acquire a love and fascination for nutrition and the interplay between diet and performance. Enjoy Reid Reale – Combat sports dietitian – www.CombatSportsNutrition.com Table of contents Chapter 1 - The perfect diet................................................................................................ Page 3 Chapter 2 - Energy kilojoules and calories......................................................................... Page 8 Chapter 3 - Vitamins and minerals...................................................................................... Page 14 Chapter 4 - Protein............................................................................................................. Page 26 Chapter 5 - Carbohydrates.................................................................................................. Page 38 Chapter 6 - Fats................................................................................................................... Page 62 Chapter 7 - Dietary fibre..................................................................................................... Page 76 Chapter 8 - Fluid.................................................................................................................. Page 81 Chapter 9 - Antioxidants..................................................................................................... Page 86 Chapter 10 - Putting it all together..................................................................................... Page 91 Chapter 11 - Supplements................................................................................................... Page 101 Chapter 12 - Cutting weight............................................................................................... Page 110 Chapter 13 - Post weigh-in/ competition day nutrition..................................................... Page 121 Chapter 14 - Periodization.................................................................................................. Page 125 Wrap up............................................................................................................................... Page 129 References resources further reading............................................................................ Page 130 The ‘perfect diet’

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Combat sports nutrition 3 Many people ask me “What diet do you follow” “what diet should I go on” “what do you think about a modified paleo diet” “should I follow an intermittent fasting diet” and many more ‘diet’ related questions. Everyone wants to know what’s the secret formula to never ending energy huge increases in muscle mass and how to blow torch away body fat. The secret is there is no secret. You will realise after reading this book that there are some simple principles we need to follow in order to achieve our goals. There are many different ‘diets’ that can deliver us the results we want but for any ‘diet’ to work it must obey the simple key principles we will go through. Sure there are individual variations and if you feed two people the exact same diet there is likely going to be noticeably different outcomes however we are more similar than we are different. Using training as an analogy there are several different workouts which will promote strength gains upper/lower splits push/pull splits full body work outs power lifting Olympic weight lifting Westside style a 5x5 protocol wave loading pyramid sets etc. Chances are if you bust your ass in the gym eat some food get some rest and repeat you will get stronger. Therefore one might say that “These so called experts in the strength and conditioning field don’t know what they are on about and everybody is different so why listen to anybody”. Conversely if you were to lift nothing but rubber 1kg weights or train 8 hours every day and get only 2 hours sleep per night or only train once per month or only do static stretching chances are you won’t get stronger. So then why does strength improve when following any of the previous training protocols but not the latter ones The reason is because the first examples I shared all follow the principles of strength training progressive overload specificity rest frequency etc. Just as you HAVE to lift heavier weights over time in order to get stronger you HAVE to eat more in order to get bigger training whilst dehydrated WILL impair heat tolerance etc. Certain things are just physics biochemistry thermodynamics etc. In other words certain things are just FACT. So like I said there is not a one size fits all diet that is perfect for everyone. However there are general principles which do apply to everyone. So when we say “This person needs 1.7g of protein per kg of body weight in order to gain muscle mass” the person may actually only need 1.4g or may need 1.8g and this is why we always talk in ranges. However you WILL NOT build muscle if you are eating 0.5g of protein per kg and your body WILL NOT build extra muscle just because you consume 10g of protein per kg. See where I’m going with this There are many different ways to design a diet that will suit your needs. Many athletes are quite analytical obsessive and love numbers myself included – in which case talking about food in terms of energy protein carbohydrate and fat grams may be suitable. For others talking about food in terms of food groups and serves is easier to understand. In this book I will attempt to present the info in both forms so that those who want the detail have it and those who want the straight forward “what do I eat” will have that as well. Following on from the nutrient versus food group discussion I will now discuss the different ‘food groups’ using the food pyramid or healthy plate models as a guide. Pyramids plates food groups and guidelines Most people will be familiar with ‘The good food pyramid’ ‘The healthy plate model’ or some other similar set of guidelines or government health campaigns. If you are somewhat forgetful allow me to jog your memory.

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Combat sports nutrition 4 Now these images and guidelines have received much criticism over the years particularly from athletes ‘natural’ food advocates and especially from those pushing the latest fad diets or weight loss methods. However whilst these guidelines may not be perfect I wonder just how possible it is to come up with a simple set of guidelines alongside an appealing image that will solve the worlds nutrition problems they do have many good points. First these guidelines are put together by experts with many years of experience and education like myself and are based on decades of scientific investigation and tens of thousands of research articles. Second they do all recommend people eat more vegetables and fruits and less fatty and sugary snacks and junk food. Lastly they break food down into ‘food groups’ which make it easy for people to know which collection of foods share similar properties and contain similar nutrients. For example if someone is told to “Eat less energy and more fibre antioxidants vitamins and minerals” this may seem more complicated than “I want you to eat more vegetables”. I will talk more about food groups shortly. So all in all most of what these guidelines state are appropriate for the vast majority of the population. If you were to follow these basic healthy eating guidelines you would maintain your health and perform adequately. However as fighters we are a special breed with special needs and in order to not only perform adequately but OPTIMALLY there are some tweaks to the general healthy eating guidelines we can make. For example the main points relevant to fighters which are either not addressed or not conveyed particularly well in existing guidelines are an athlete’s protein intake the quality the daily

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Combat sports nutrition 5 spread and the varying amounts and an athlete’s optimal carbohydrate intake as this can vary dramatically depending on your training schedule and your goals. So in order to communicate efficiently and effectively I will talk about food in terms of its component parts protein carbohydrates fats calories etc. as well as in terms of food group serves. The food groups I refer to will be: • Vegetables: all vegetables and legumes other than starchy vegetables potato sweet potato taro cassava corn. Also including tomato. One serve ½ cup of vegetables ½ cup of legumes or 1 cup of salad leaves lettuce spinach rocket etc.. • Fruit: all fruits other than tomato and avocado. One serve 1 medium piece of fruit 2 small pieces of fruit 30g of dried fruit or 1 cup of diced fruit. • Grain/cereal foods: all breads pasta rice quinoa cereals muffins etc. Also including starchy vegetables potato sweet potato taro cassava corn. One serve 1 slice of bread 40g ½ bread roll or flat bread 40g ½ cup cooked rice pasta noodles barley polenta etc. ½ cup cooked oats 2/3 cup cereal flakes ¼ cup muesli or ¼ cup uncooked oats • Lean meats and meat alternatives: all meats fish eggs tofu. One serve 65g cooked meat or poultry 90-100g raw 100g cooked fish 115g raw or 2 large eggs or 1 cup of tofu • Dairy/dairy alternatives: all dairy milks soy milks cheeses and yoghurt. One serve 1 cup of dairy or soy milk 1 tub yoghurt around 175g ½ cup of ricotta or cottage cheese or 40g of other cheeses cheeses other than low fat ricotta or low fat cottage cheese should be eaten rarely as they are much higher in fat and lower in protein than other dairy sources. • Fats and oils: all fats and oils nuts and avocado. One serve 1 tablespoon of oil/butter/margarine 30g of nuts or ½ medium avocado. • Extras: Chocolates candy cakes deep fried snacks potato chips takeaway ‘junk’ foods etc. One serve 2 scoops of ice cream 75g 1 thick or 2 thin high fat sausages 2-3 sweet biscuits 1 doughnut 40g 40g sugar candy 25g of chocolate 1 can soft drink 1 bottle of beer 1 glass of wine 60g pastry product or any other snack food around 150kcal or 600 j. I have made a few alterations to the typical food groupings used by many of the ‘healthy eating’ or ‘pyramid’ guidelines. I have placed starchy vegetables potato sweet potato cassava taro corn with grains/cereals group rather than the vegetable group as these are carbohydrate dense foods. I have removed nuts from the meat/meat alternatives group as nuts do not contain significant levels of protein in a regular serve. I have placed nuts and avocado into the fats and oils group as these are both rich sources of fats. The following table displays a summary of the food groups I have just talked about. Summary of food groups Food group Example serve Intake Key nutrients / Comment

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Combat sports nutrition 6 Fruit 2+ Serves per day Key nutrients include vitamins minerals fibre carbohydrates. Can be used as a source of carbohydrates and may replace some cereal/grain serves in the diet. Vegetables 6+ Serves per day Key nutrients include vitamins minerals fibre. Should be consumed regularly throughout the day at most feedings. Grains/cereals 4-12+ Serves per day Key nutrients include carbohydrates fibre vitamins minerals. Greatest intake variability of any food group. Intake should match activity level/body weight goals. Ensure to consume grain/ cereal or other carbohydrate serves before and after training. Meat/meat alternatives 2-4 Serves per day Key nutrients include protein iron zinc. Small feedings consumed regularly throughout the day to provide ‘protein spread’. Intake depends on athlete size and requirements. Ensure to consume a meat/meat alternative serve as soon as possible following training. Dairy/dairy alternatives 3-5 Serves per day Key nutrients include protein carbohydrates calcium. Low fat dairy are good sources of protein and may be used to help support protein requirements/ replace meat serves. Fats/oils 1-4 Serves per day Key nutrients include essential fatty acids and energy. Intake will vary depending on energy needs/training volume/body weight goals.

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Combat sports nutrition 7 You will have noticed that the ‘extras’ food group was not included in the previous table. These foods should not make up part of a fighters day to day diet and should only be consumed in rare circumstances. Fighters who are aiming to increase weight or who struggle to meet high energy requirements may consume limited serves of extras to help increase energy intake usually no more than 1 per day but in general there is not room in a fighters diet for these foods no more than 1-2 serves per week if at all. As you can see from the previous table different foods are categorized into the different food groups based on the nutrients they provide. So although we can talk about foods in terms of “Vegetables are important in keeping you free from illness and preventing deficiencies” or “Grains/cereals are important for fuelling your training” its actually the compounds in the foods that provide the benefit i.e. the vitamins minerals protein carbohydrates fats etc.. The following chapters will discuss food from the perspective of the various nutrients contained within foods the energy they contain and why these things are important. In this way you will gain an understanding of what makes a food suitable for a certain purpose and it will teach you to be flexible in your diet approach. Once again I suggest reading these chapters in their entirety the first time through. This will provide you with a step by step explanation of the relevant physiology and biochemistry and instructions on how to optimize intake for a particular nutrient or food group. Relevant tables will be introduced throughout the chapter to illustrate key points and at the end of each chapter detailed tables of food sources of nutrients will be presented for reference. If you have never educated yourself in the areas of nutritional science exercise physiology or biochemistry you are in for quite a ride…

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Combat sports nutrition 8 Energy kilojoules and calories In order to live grow breath talk think sleep and move we require energy. We get energy from the food and beverages we consume and this energy can be quantified and is measured. A kilojoule kJ is a unit of measurement used for energy just as a kilometre is unit of measurement used for distance. Kilojoules are what’s known as an SI unit of measurement SI being the modern form of the metric system and the official and preferred system of measurement used in science. Also used as a unit of measurement in nutrition is calorie although what most people refer to as a calorie is actually a kilocalorie kcal. Many people prefer to use kcal when expressing energy in foods as there is a long standing history of its use particularly in the USA and they are smaller numbers compared to kJ. If you want to become nutritionally literate it is a good idea to be able to talk in terms of kJs and kcals and convert between the two. 1 Kcal 4.18 kJ 1000 Kcal 4180 kJ just remember that 100 kcal is roughly 400 kJ Energy requirements weight gain and weight loss Put simply our daily energy requirements are made up of two factors: 1-our resting metabolic rate which is determined predominantly by our height and muscle mass and 2-energy expended through any and all types of movement training at higher intensities and for longer durations therefore requires more energy than training at lower intensities for shorter durations. Therefore the equation looks like this: RMR Resting metabolic rate PA Physical activity EE Energy expenditure Logically a bigger athlete who trains 6 days a week requires more energy than a smaller athlete who trains 3 days a week. Also for a given training load a 75kg fighter who has 10 body fat will require more energy than 75kg fighter with 20 body fat as the leaner athlete will have more muscle mass. 1 kcal 4.18 kJ RMR PA EE

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Combat sports nutrition 9 The following table displays the varying energy requirements of different age/activity groups. The tables below display average daily energy requirements for males and females. Females average daily energy expenditure Sedentary Active 4-8 years 1200 Kcal / 5016 KJ to 1800 Kcal / 7524 KJ 9-13years 1600 Kcal / 6688 KJ to 2200 Kcal / 9196 KJ 14-18years 1800 Kcal / 7524 KJ to 2400 Kcal / 10032 KJ 19-30years 2000 Kcal / 8360 KJ to 2400 Kcal / 10032 KJ 31-50years 1800 Kcal / 7524 KJ to 2200 Kcal / 9196 KJ 51+ 1600 Kcal / 6688 KJ to 2200 Kcal / 9196 KJ Males average daily energy expenditure Sedentary Active 4-8 years 1400 Kcal / 5852 KJ to 2000 Kcal / 8360 KJ 9-13years 1800 Kcal / 7524 KJ to 2600 Kcal / 10868 KJ 14-18years 2200 Kcal / 9196 KJ to 3200 Kcal / 13376 KJ 19-30years 2400 Kcal / 10032 KJ to 3000 Kcal / 12540 KJ 31-50years 2200 Kcal / 9196 KJ to 3000 Kcal / 12540 KJ 51+ 2000 Kcal / 8360 KJ to 2800 Kcal / 11704 KJ Energy consumed above what is required for our daily expenditure will be stored as body fat our body’s long term fuel storage site or possibly can be used to help build muscle mass if an appropriate strength training program is used. If you do not consume enough energy to meet daily energy expenditure than your body will burn some body fat in order to meet energy needs. Weight management is energy in vs energy out it is that simple almost… I will talk more later

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Combat sports nutrition 1 0 EI Energy intake EE Energy expenditure Breaking it down further The food we eat can be broken down into ‘macronutrients’. Macronutrients describe the classes of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest quantities and provide the bulk of our energy. The 3 main macronutrients are carbohydrates fats and protein. Alcohol is also a macronutrient which provides energy however isn’t considered a large part of the diet or at least it shouldn’t be. Due to the varying chemical properties of the macronutrients they contain different amounts of energy. Macronutrient KJ content Kcal content Carbohydrate 1 gram 16.7 4 Protein 1 gram 16.7 4 Fat 1 gram 37.7 9 Alcohol 1 gram 29.3 7 Most foods contain a mixture of macronutrients and so the total energy in a particular food can be calculated from the sum of the protein fat carbohydrates found in that food. Take a look at the following example of one cup of regular full fat and one cup of low fat milk: 250mL Full fat milk KJ content Kcal content Carbohydrate 12.5 gram 209 50 EI EE Weight gain EI EE Weight loss

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Combat sports nutrition 1 1 Protein 8.8 gram 147 35 Fat 10 gram 376 90 Total energy 732 175 250mL Low fat milk KJ content Kcal content Carbohydrate 15 gram 251 60 Protein 10 gram 167 40 Fat 2.5 gram 92 22 Total energy 510 122 We can see that due to the different macronutrient make up in particular the amount of fat present the full fat milk contains more energy than the low fat milk although both beverages are 250ml – making the full fat milk more ‘Energy Dense’ remember the term energy. Foods which contain more fibre and water are generally less energy dense than foods with minimal fibre and water. Let’s look at more examples. Food 1 kg Broccoli 1kg Butter 1 kg skinless chicken breast Protein 28g 10g 310g Carbohydrate 22g 5g 0g Fat 6g 810g 36g Energy 1062 kJ / 254 kcal 30723 kJ / 7350 kcal 6521 kJ / 1561 kcal Energy density 1 kJ / 0.25 kcal per gram 31 kJ / 7 kcal per gram 7 kJ / 2 kcal per gram It’s easy to see how fat can have such an impact on the amount of energy in a food. Thus as a general rule foods which contain more fat are more energy dense. The following example compares two foods both which are primarily carbohydrate foods. Food 150 g cooked rice 150 g jelly lollies Protein 4 g 8 g Carbohydrate 33.9 g 117 g Fat 1 g 1 g Energy 660 kJ / 158 kcal 2115 kJ / 506 kcal

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Combat sports nutrition 1 2 Get more out of your Combat training This book explains how you can get the most out of your Brazilian Jiujitsu Wrestling Boxing and MMA Training. With the eBook you will:  Discover how proteins carbs and fats affect your body  Increase Your Training Performance and Recovery  Which foods to eat to perform at maximum capacity.  Start cutting weight properly and effectively  Receive meal plans for you to perform well and recover even better.  Learn the optimal amount of Protein Carbs and fat you need on a daily basis  Discover how important vitamins and minerals are to combat athletes  and lots more

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Combat sports nutrition 1 3 Here is a sneak peek inside:

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Combat sports nutrition 1 4

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Combat sports nutrition 1 5 Download your copy for only 19 Reid Reale About the Author BJJ Brown Belt and all around nice guy I pride myself in helping others understand their own bodies and on being able to communicate nutritional science in an understandable way. I am fascinated with nutrition martial arts strength and conditioning and interplay between all of these areas. My formal nutrition and exercise science studies span 10 years but my interest extends far beyond this. Throughout my university life I have trained coached and competed very often whilst completing a degree in health science majoring in nutrition exercise science achieving 1st class honours for my research thesis in molecular nutrition as well as a master’s degree in dietetics. I hold both Accredited Sports Dietitian and Accredited Practising Dietitian status with Sports Dietitians Australia and the Dietitians Association of Australia respectively. To further fuel my personal and professional attributes I am currently pursuing my PhD focusing on weight cutting techniques and body composition of combat sport athletes. I also routinely work with Olympians BJJ athletes MMA fighters Boxers Judo players and even a world championship kickboxer. Furthermore I am able to exchange ideas with leading sports scientists from around the world and I act as reviewer for combat sports nutrition and exercise science articles for multiple peer reviewed scientific journals

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Combat sports nutrition 1 6 NOTE: Combat sports Nutrition eBook is a downloadable product. No physical products will be shipped. After you order you will get INSTANT ACCESS to download the e-book onto your computer. The e-book format is adobe acrobat PDF which can be viewed on Mac or PC. If you have any questions regarding this product please contact me at reidatgmail.com Copyright © 2015. Contact me at reid.realeatgmail.com Order NOW ClickBank is the retailer of products on this site. CLICKBANK® is a registered trademark of Click Sales Inc. a Delaware corporation located at 917 S. Lusk Street Suite 200 Boise Idaho 83706 USA and used by permission. ClickBanks role as retailer does not constitute an endorsement approval or review of these products or any claim statement or opinion used in promotion of these products.

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