10. GPU - Video Card (Display, Graphic, VGA)

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Display Adaptor, VGA Card, Graphics Card, Video Card, GPU - Computer, Hardware, පරිගණක, දෘඩාංග, Information Technology, තොරතුරු තාක්ෂණය :)

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VIDEO CARD ++

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Graphics are nothing but additional effects in our regular computing. Animated text, animated wallpper,glowing effects,etc are nothing but graphics.

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History of Graphics & Graphics Card : Graphics were used with computer hardware before the first graphic card was invented. The first computer graphic to be used on a computer was in the 1940s ,

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In 1965, IBM created the first graphic display machine . The IBM 1130 computer was used with the IBM 2250 display unit.

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Graphics card: Graphics card or video card is display adaptor or hardware component whose function is to generate output images to display. It is also called as dedicated expansion card.

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Components of Graphics Card: 1. Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) 2. Video Bios 3. Video Memory 4. RAMDAC 5. Motherboard Interface 6. Cooling Devices 7. Outputs

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1. GPU – Graphics Processing Unit : A GPU is dedicated graphics processor optimized for floating point calculations which are fundamentals to 3D graphics rendering.

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2. Video Bios : The VIDEO BIOS or FIRMWARE contains basic programs that governs graphics card operations and provides the instructions so that computer hardware and software can interact with card. It contains information on memory timing, voltage of graphics processor and RAM, operating speed and other information. Like our motherboard BIOS, it is possible to change VIDEO BIOS of our graphics card, but it is recommended that it should be done under experts supervision, since changing VIDEO BIOS may improve your graphics cards graphics performance.

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2. Video Memory : An IGP uses RAM of main memory, while Graphics card has its own memory called as Graphics memory or video memory. The memory capacity of most modern video card ranges from 1 GiB to 4GiB. Since video memory needs to be accessed by GPU and display circuitry it often uses special high speed memory. Now there are improved graphics card with better memory and better clock rate (speed) are available whose speed ranges from 400MHz to 5 GHz. (These number values change with time!... :)

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2. vRAM Types : DDR ↓ DDR2 ↓ GDDR3 ↓ DDR3 ↓ GDDR5

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3. RAMDAC : RAMDAC is Random access Memory Digital To Analog Convertor which converts digital signal to analog signal for use by computer display which uses analog input such as CRT display.

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4 . Motherboard Interface : It is the connection system which connects graphics card with motherboard system. Although there are many connection system since 1974.Nowdays AGP and PCI-Express slot are most widely used connection system. 5 . Cooling Devices: Graphics card uses lot of electricity which is converted into heat. If heat isn’t dissipated then card could get overheated and get damaged. Cooling devices are incorporated to transfer heat elsewhere. PCI Slots AGP Slot

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6 . Outputs: These are the connection system which connects graphics card with display. 1. VGA ( D-sub ): Analog based standard adopted in 1980s designed for CRT displays. Also called as VGA connector. 2. . S-Video : Analog. Commonly known as S-Video , Super-video and Y/C. Usually carries SD video. Typically used in older TVs 3. DVI : Digital. Digital Visual Interface. Standard designed for flat panel screens such as plasma , LCD display, HDTV, video projectors,etc .

DisplayPort and HDMI:

4. HDMI : Digital. High-Definition Multimedia Interface . Used in TVs, Monitors etc. Carries Audio and Video. 5. DisplayPort : DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association ( VESA ). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to transmit audio, USB, and other forms of data . VESA designed it to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. Backward compatibility to VGA and DVI by using active adapter dongles enables users to use DisplayPort fitted video sources without replacing existing display devices. DisplayPort ports can be made so that they are compatible with single-link DVI and HDMI 1.4 . Compatibility is achieved with DisplayPort Dual-mode ports, which are marked with the ++DP logo, using attached passive adapters; powered active adapters allow signal conversion to dual-link DVI and analog VGA . For manufacturers DisplayPort has an advantage over HDMI in that it is royalty-free , while there is an annual charge and a royalty fee for HDMI . DisplayPort and HDMI Dual-mode DisplayPort

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Why graphics card is important ????

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Very poor reflections No glow in surrounding Low Graphics of game without Graphics card : Poor depth of field

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Clear reflections Glow in surrounding High Graphics of game with Graphics card : Clear depth of field

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Advantages of Graphics Card : Motion Blur : This technique is used to blur objects in fast motion .

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3. Texture Mapping : This technique allows addition of details on surfaces without adding complexity. 4. Lens flare : This technique allows producing lightning effect as similar as light emitting from light sources . 5. Fresnel Effect : This technique allows us applying shadows and reflections over an object through different angles.

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6. Anisotropic Filtering : This technique enhances quality of textures at oblique viewing angles. Poor texture quality Detailed textures

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7. Pictures comes true : High Definition effects can be added to images so that they looks like real photos.

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  Instructions to install graphics card :   1. Remove your current drivers (read how to remove drivers under the drivers section). 2. Open up your case 3. Take out your old card 4. Pop in your new one(Make sure it's the correct one) 5. Lock your case back up 6. Boot up 7. Install new drivers from the video card brand website (ATI/ Nvidia ) the drivers on the disk provided are usually out of date. 8. Reboot after drivers are installed

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Applications of Graphics card: 1.Paint Programs: This allows you to create freehand drawing.

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2.Creating 3D models using CAD software

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3. For creating Animations :

OpenGL:

OpenGL OpenGL : Open G raphics L ibrary Cross-language , Multi-platform API for rendering 2D and 3D computer graphics . The API is typically used to interact with a GPU , to achieve hardware-accelerated rendering. OpenGL was developed by Silicon Graphics Inc. and widely used in CAD , virtual reality , scientific visualization, information visualization, flight simulation , and video games . OpenGL is managed by the non-profit technology consortium Khronos Group .

Direct3D:

Direct3D Microsoft Direct3D : Direct3D is part of Microsoft 's DirectX application programming interface (API). Direct3D is available for Microsoft Windows operating systems ( Windows 95 and above)

OpenGL vs Direct3D:

OpenGL vs Direct3D http:// www.cprogramming.com/tutorial/openglvsdirectx.html http://rastergrid.com/blog/2011/10/opengl-vs-directx-the-war-is-far-from-over / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_OpenGL_and_Direct3D

GPGPU :

GPGPU GPGPU General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units is the utilization of a GPU (which typically handles computation only for computer graphics) , to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the CPU DirectCompute Microsoft DirectCompute wich is a part of the Microsoft DirectX collection and is an API that supports GPGPU on Windows operating systems. OpenCL : Open Computing Language CUDA : Compute Unified Device Architecture FireStream

CUDA, OpenCL, Stream:

CUDA, OpenCL , Stream CUDA : nVidia Fire Stream : AMD OpenCL : Open Standard (mainly used in AMD) Usually GPUs have many Cores unlike CPUs. CPUs has few but powerful cores ( 2, 4 etc) and GPUs has Hundreds of less powerful cores. This makes certain operations are more efficient in GPUs than in CPUs. (CPUs better for Scalar operations, GPUs better for Vector operations) Typical Core i5 CPUs has 2 or 4 cores A mid range nVidia GPU has more than 96 CUDA Cores A mid range AMD GPU has more than 400 Stream Processors + ROP Units and Texture Units AMD and nVidia uses different techniques nVidia uses less number of Powerful cores AMD uses huge number of less powerful cores

CPU vs GPU:

CPU vs GPU

Hardware Acceleration:

Hardware Acceleration In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some function faster than software running on the general-purpose CPU . Examples of hardware acceleration include blitting acceleration functionality in GPUs and instructions for complex operations in CPUs

DXVA: DirectX Video Acceleration:

DXVA: DirectX Video Acceleration DXVA is a Microsoft API specification for the Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 platforms that allows video decoding to be hardware accelerated Most Media Players and Codecs Support Different DXVA methods Nvidia PureVideo AMD UVD (Unified Video Decoder) ATI Avivo Intel Clear Video Intel Quick Sync

multi-GPU solutions:

multi-GPU solutions AMD CrossFireX nVidia SLI ( Scalable Link Interface)

GPU Vendors:

GPU Vendors AMD Radeon nVidia GeForce Intel (CPU Graphics)

Video Card Vendors:

Video Card Vendors XFX EVGA BFG Sapphire Asus +++

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