08. Central Processing Unit (CPU)


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CPU Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit:

Central Processing Unit Microprocessor The Chip The Processor 2


CPUs 3


CPU The brain of a computer system where calculations and decisions are made The main part of the computer that manages, stores, and uses data A silicon chip which normally contains millions of transistors https://duckduckgo.com/?q=define+central processing unit https://www.google.com/search?q=CPU&tbs=dfn:1 4

Components of a CPU:

Components of a CPU Two main components Arithmetic Logic Unit Control Unit Other components Registers Cache … etc 5

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit):

The unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations such as addition, subtraction, shifting operations and logic instructions (boolean comparisons, such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations ) ALUs are designed to perform integer calculations. Therefore, besides adding and subtracting, ALUs often handle the multiplications, since the result is also an integer FPU (Floating-Point Unit) ALUs typically do not perform division operations, as the result may be a fraction, or a "floating point" number. Instead, division operations are usually handled by the FPU , which also performs other non-integer calculations 6 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit):

7 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Control Unit (CU):

The control unit is basically circuitry inside the CPU, controlling the operations inside the CPU and "directing traffic" in a sense. The functions a control unit performs can depend on the type of CPU, since the varying degrees of architecture between all the different CPUs will determine the functions of the control unit Handles all processor control signals. It directs all input and output flow, fetches code for instructions from microprograms and directs other units and models by providing control and timing signals 8 Control Unit (CU)


Registers Local storage space on a CPU that holds data that is being processed. Registers generally occupy the top-most position in the memory hierarchy, providing high-speed and fast access Generally measured in terms of bits to determine the amount of data they can hold. For example, the two most frequently used terms, 32-bit processor’ and 64-bit processor, generally refer to the size of the register on the processor Processor registers are normally made of static or dynamic random access memory (RAM) cells. Static RAM offers faster access to data than dynamic RAM, which is relatively slow Categories of Registers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register#Categories_of_registers 9


Cache CPU Cache is a data storage section of a CPU or processor. Its purpose is to "cache" (or "keep in hand") the next set of instructions and data that is currently needed Slower than Registers, Faster than Main Memory Comes in different levels. L1, L2, L3 L3 normally used to found outside the CPU usually in Motherboard of High End machines (Gaming, Servers etc.). Certain newer CPUs contain on-die L3 cache Speed (performance): L1 > L2 > L3 Size (capacity): L1 < L2 < L3 Typical Core I CPU contains L1 cache 64 kB per core L2 cache 256 kB per core L3 cache 1 MB to 8 MB shared 55 10

CPU Diagrams:

CPU Diagrams 11

CPU Vendors:

CPU Vendors Intel AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) 12

CPU Vendors:

CPU Vendors List of Intel microprocessors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_microprocessors List of AMD microprocessors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_AMD_microprocessors Different manufacturers use different CPU architectures and technologies. Therefore similar CPU related terms such as Cache may different as well… 13


Microarchitecture The microword definition, data flow, timing constraints, and precedence constraints that characterize a given microprogrammed computer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_CPU_architectures http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_CPU_architectures#Microarchitectures http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_AMD_CPU_microarchitectures 14

Intel Microarchitectures:

Intel Microarchitectures http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_CPU_microarchitectures Semiconductor device fabrication Semiconductor manufacturing processes measured by nanometers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor_device_fabrication Intel Tick-Tock Every "tick" is a shrinking of process technology of the previous microarchitecture and every "tock" is a new microarchitecture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Tick-Tock 15

Intel Microarchitectures:

Intel Microarchitectures 16 Microarchitecture Fabrication process Major CPUs NetBurst 65 nm Pentium 4 Core 65 nm , 45 nm Core 2 Nehalem 45 nm , 32 nm Core i3 Core i5 Core i7 Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge 32 nm Ivy Bridge 22 nm Haswell Haswell 22 nm Broadwell 14 nm Notable Microarchitectures

Intel Core CPU Generations:

Intel Core CPU Generations Processor Generation of a Core I CPU is a term used to identify certain CPU families Instead of using microarchitecture names, simply a generation name is used Generation can be determined by the relevant Sub Microarchitecture Codename or CPU model no. 1 st Generation: Nehalem ( ~ 45nm) 2 nd Generation: Sandy Bridge ( ~ 32nm) 3 rd Generation: Ivy Bridge ( ~ 22nm) 4 th Generation: Haswell ( ~ 22nm) 17

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Core Generations:

1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th Core Generations 18 Generation CPU Model No. Sample 1 st Core i # - ### Core i5 - 750 2 nd Core i # - 2 ### Core i5 - 2310 3 rd Core i # - 3 ### Core i5 - 3450 4 th Core i # - 4 ### Core i5 - 4570 CPU Generation or its Microarchitecture Codename can be determined by the CPU model no. Here # is a number. Not a letter

CPU Socket:

CPU Socket A CPU socket or CPU slot is a mechanical component that provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and the motherboard Typically made of plastic. Has a lever or latch and metal contacts for each of the pins or lands on the CPU. Many packages are keyed to ensure the proper insertion Earlier Sockets had holes, as older CPUs had pins, and newer sockets have pins as newer CPUs are pin-less http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_socket http://www.cpu-world.com/Sockets/ 19

CPU Socket:

CPU Socket 20 Socket Major CPUs Socket 478 Pentium 4 LGA 775 Core 2 Duo LGA 1156 Core i3, i5 (1st Gen) LGA 1155 Core i3, i5 (2nd, 3rd Gen) Notable Intel CPU Sockets

CPU Socket:

CPU Socket 21


Threads In computer science , a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by an operating system scheduler Multithreading Multithreading CPUs have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads Hyperthreading Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations Here a Logical Core is called as a thread 22


Multicore A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (Physical Cores) Normally a Core means a Physical Core and a Thread means a Logical Core Multicore systems have more than one Cores Dual-Core and Quad-Core CPUs are common 23


Multicore Dual-Core Pentium D Core 2 Duo Core i3 Dual Core Quad-Core Core 2 Quad Core i5 Quad Core Intel's Core i # numbering scheme i #- 6 ## and down: dual core i #- 7 ## and up: quad core 24


Multicore Multicore Cache Distribution 25


Multicore 26 Multicore Cache Distribution

Processor Types:

Processor Types Server Processors Desktop Processors Mobile (Notebook) CPUs CPUs for other Mobile Devices 27

Server Processors:

Server Processors High Speed Multiple CPUs used Bigger Cache Examples Intel Xeon, AMD Opteron 28

Mobile (Notebook) CPUs:

Mobile (Notebook) CPUs Compared to Desktop CPUs Smaller Cache Less Power Consumption Less Performance Typically vendors include special letters like M (for mobile) in notebook CPUs 29

CPUs for other Mobile Devices :

CPUs for other Mobile Devices Mobile Devices like Mobile Phones, Tabs use CPUs Newer high end devices use Multicore CPUs Examples Sony Xperia Z: 1.5  GHz quad-core Qualcomm Krait Samsung Galaxy S4 1.2 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 , 1.6 GHz quad-core 1.6 GHz quad-core Cortex-A15 + 30

Future: SoC:

Future: SoC A System on a Chip or System on Chip ( SoC ) is an integrated circuit ( IC ) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip Integrates almost all components into a single silicon chip. Along with a CPU, an SoC usually contains a GPU, memory, USB controller, power management circuits, and wireless radios. Whereas a CPU cannot function without dozens of other chips, it’s possible to build complete computers with just a single SoC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_on_a_chip 31

SoC (System on a Chip):

SoC (System on a Chip) SoC vs. CPU CPUs are on the way out. Eventually, SoCs will almost completely consume CPUs http://www.extremetech.com/computing/126235-soc-vs-cpu-the-battle-for-the-future-of-computing 32

SoC (System on a Chip):

SoC (System on a Chip) 33 ARM server SoC : Calxeda EnergyCore ECX-1000 Block Diagram

CPU: Considerations:

CPU: Considerations Motherboard Socket Chipset 34

More Links and References:

More Links and References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Intel_processors https://duckduckgo.com/?q=CPU https://www.google.com/search?q=CPU 35

Thank You!:

Thank You! Ayubowan !

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