07. Motherboard (Mainboard, System Board)


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Motherboard (Mainboard, System Board) පරිගණක දෘඩාංග


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Motherboard AKA: Mainboard System board:

Motherboard AKA: Mainboard System board

What is the Motherboard?:

What is the Motherboard? The main circuit board which holds and connect all main components of a computer system Mother of all components

Motherboard Diagram:

Motherboard Diagram

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Motherboard Diagram: More http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Motherboard_diagram.svg Do not break your neck ;) Just click on and visit the link!... 


Bus In computer architecture , a bus is a subsystem that transfers data between components inside a computer , or between computers

Internal bus :

Internal bus AKA: local bus, internal data bus, memory bus, system bus or Front-Side-Bus Connects all major internal components of a computer (CPU and Memory) Quick and Faster

External bus :

AKA: Expansion bus Connects external devices (Most Input/Output Devices, USB, etc) External bus

FSB (Front Side Bus):

FSB (Front Side Bus) System Bus of Intel-chip-based Motherboards http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-side_bus FSB performance can be measured by FSB Frequency (MHz), Transfers/Cycle, Bus Width and Transfer Rate (MB/sec)

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FSB Transfer Rates http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-side_bus#Transfer_rates Related component speeds CPU RAM

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Evolution More modern designs use point-to-point connections like AMD's HyperTransport and Intel's QuickPath Interconnect (QPI). These implementations remove the traditional northbridge in favor of a direct link from the CPU to the southbridge or I/O controller Therefore FSB is no longer used and replaced by DMI


Chipset A chipset or PC chipset refers to a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together usually marketed as a single product. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chipset

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Well known Chipset vendors Intel, AMD, VIA, nVidia More links http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_chipsets#Core_i_Series_chipsets Traditionally chipsets had two major chips called Northbridge and Southbridge


Northbridge Northbridge typically handles communications among the CPU , in some cases RAM , and Display controller ( PCI Express or AGP ) and the Southbridge The high-speed part of a chipset and interconnects the CPU to memory via FSB

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Evolution With the AMD Athlon64 series CPU's, a new architecture was used where some functions of the north and south bridge chips were moved to the CPU. Intel followed suit with their Core i series CPU's Due to the push for System-on-a-chip ( SoC ) processors modern devices increasingly have the northbridge integrated into the CPU die itself For Intel Sandy Bridge and AMD Accelerated Processing Unit processors introduced in 2011, all of the functions of northbridge reside on the CPU


Southbridge The southbridge typically implements the slower capabilities of the motherboard in a northbridge/ southbridge chipset computer architecture. Handles most input/output devices Southbridge communicates with CPU via Northbridge

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Evolution As modern computers does not contain a Northbridge, nowadays Southbridge communicates with CPU directly In Intel chipset systems, the southbridge is named Input/output Controller Hub (ICH) . In AMD systems it is named as Fusion Controller Hub (FCH)

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A newer Motherboard (Core iX 3rd Gen) [NO Northbridge]

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A newer Chipset [NO Northbridge]. Intel Z77

Difference between FSB and DMI:

Difference between FSB and DMI FSB DMI


BIOS Basic Input/Output System BIOS contents is stored on an EEPROM chip BIOS selects candidate boot devices using information collected by POST and configuration information from EEPROM , CMOS RAM

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BIOS, a set of computer instructions in firmware that control input and output operations BIOS provides a way for programs and operating systems to interact with input/output devices. Variations in the system hardware are hidden by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware BIOS Manufacturers AMI, Award, Phoenix….. Etc.

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A BIOS settings menu


UEFI Unified Extensible Firmware Interface Successor of EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) UEFI is meant to replace BIOS firmware interface But in practice most (all!), most UEFI images provide legacy support for BIOS services

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UEFI OS Support Most newer OS support UEFI (Windows 8, Newer Linux Distributions etc.) OS like Windows 7 support EFI, but not UEFI

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Form Factor:

Form Factor Form Factor decides many things such as Casing Size and Power supply type of a motherboard

CPU Socket:

CPU Socket CPU socket plays an important role in Motherboards as it limit the CPU support More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_socket

RAM Type:

RAM Type RAM type also important Normally a motherboard support only single type of RAM (DDR2, DDR3)

Expansion Slots +:

Expansion Slots + PCIe and PCI slots SATA, IDE ports USB ports Other


References https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Computer+Motherboards https://www.google.com/search?q=Motherboard

Thank You!:

Thank You! Ayubowan !

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