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Premium member Presentation Transcript Diversity In Living Organisms: Diversity In Living Organisms By-Akash Kumar maharaj classification: classification The Hierarchy of classification groups: The Hierarchy of classification groups Monera: Monera Monera ( / məˈnɪərə / mə - neer -ə ) is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms without a nucleus ( i.e. , a prokaryotic cell organization), such as bacteria. The taxon Monera was first proposed as a phylum by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Subsequently, the taxon was elevated to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by Édouard Chatton . The last commonly accepted mega-classification with the taxon Monera was the five-kingdom classification system established by Robert Whittaker in 1969. Under the three-domain system of taxonomy , which was introduced by Carl Woese in 1977 and reflects the evolutionary history of life, the organisms found in kingdom Monera have been divided into two domains , Archaea and Bacteria (with Eukarya as the third domain). Furthermore the taxon Monera is paraphyletic . The term " moneran " is the informal name of members of this group and is still sometimes used (as is the term "prokaryote") to denote a member of either domain.  Despite the fact that most bacteria were classified under Monera, the bacterial phylum Cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) was not initially classified under Monera, but under Plantae because of the ability of its members to photosynthesize. Pictures of monera: Pictures of monera Protista: Protista Protists /ˈ proʊtɨst / are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms . Historically, protists were treated as a biological kingdom formally called the Protista and included mostly unicellular organisms that did not fit into the other kingdoms. Molecular information has been used to redefine this group in modern taxonomy as diverse and often distantly related phyla . The group of protists is now considered to mean diverse phyla that are not closely related through evolution and have different life cycles , trophic levels, modes of locomotion and cellular structures.  Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, the protists do not have much in common.  They are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues , and this simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi , animals and plants . The term protista was first used by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Protists were traditionally subdivided into several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the unicellular "animal-like" protozoa , the "plant-like" protophyta (mostly unicellular algae ), and the "fungus-like" slime molds and water molds . These traditional subdivisions, largely based on superficial commonalities, have been replaced by classifications based on phylogenetics ( evolutionary relatedness among organisms). However, the older terms are still used as informal names to describe the morphology and ecology of various protists . Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Many protists , such as the algae , are photosynthetic and are vital primary producers in ecosystems, particularly in the ocean as part of the plankton . Other protists , such as the kinetoplastids and apicomplexans , are responsible for a range of serious human diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness . Picture of protista: Picture of protista fungi: fungi The fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota . Included are the conspicuous mushrooms , but also many microscopic forms such as molds and yeasts . A fungus (plural: fungi ) is a kind of living organism: yeasts , moulds and mushrooms are types of fungi. The fungi are a separate kingdom of living things, different from animals and plants . Fungi have cells with nuclei . Their cell walls contain chitin , unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose . These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, called the Eumycota or Eumycetes . They share a common ancestor and are monophyletic group. Their basic mode of life is saprophytic : a fungus breaks down dead organic matter around it, and uses it as food. Pictures of fungi: Pictures of fungi plantae: plantae These are multicellular eukaryotes with cell wall. They are autotrophes and use chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Thus, all plants are included in this group. Animalia: Animalia Animals are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa . Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. Most animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance ( see Heterotroph ). Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals are divided into various sub-groups, including birds , mammals , amphibians , reptiles , fish and insects . Pictures of animalia: Pictures of animalia The five kingdom classification: The five kingdom classification Thallophyta: Thallophyta The thallophytes ( Thallophyta or Thallobionta ) are a polyphyletic group of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as " thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or " lower plants ". Several different definitions of the group have been used. Most authors [ citation needed ] define the thallophytes as having undifferentiated bodies ( thalli ), as opposed to cormophytes ( Cormophyta ) with roots and stems. They were a defunct division of Kingdom Plantae that included fungus , lichens and algae and occasionally bryophytes , bacteria and the Myxomycota . They have a hidden reproductive system and hence they are also called Cryptogamae (together with ferns ), as opposed to Phanerogamae . Stephan Endlicher , a 19th-century Austrian botanist , separated the vegetable kingdom into the Thallophytes (algae, lichens, fungi) and the Cormophytes (including bryophytes and thus being equivalent to Embryophyta in this case) in 1836.  In the Lindley system (1830–1839), Endlicher's Cormophytes were divided into the Thallogens (including the bryophytes), and Cormogens ("non-flowering" plants with roots), as well as the six other classes. Cormogens were a much smaller group than Endlicher's Cormophytes ,  including just the ferns (and Equisetopsida ) and the plants now known as lycopodiophytes . Pictures of thallophyte: Pictures of thallophyte Bryophyta: Bryophyta These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom. The plant body is commonly differentiated to form stemand leaf like structure. There is no specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substance from one part of the plant body to another. Pictures of bryophyta: Pictures of bryophyta Pteridophyta: Pteridophyta Pteridophytes or Pteridophyta , in the broad interpretation of the term (or sensu lato ), are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem ) that reproduce and disperse via spores . Because they produce neither flowers nor seeds , they are referred to as cryptogams . The group includes ferns , horsetails , clubmosses , spikemosses and quillworts . These do not form a monophyletic group , because ferns and horsetails are more closely related to seed plants than to lycophytes ( clubmosses , spikemosses and quillworts ). Therefore, pteridophytes are no longer considered to form a valid taxon , but the term is still used as an informal way to refer to ferns ( monilophytes ) and lycophytes , and some recent authors have used the term to refer strictly to the monilophytes . Pictures of pteridophyta: Pictures of pteridophyta Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms The gymnosperms are a group of seed plants which includes conifers , cycads , Ginkgo .  The group may, doubtfully, include the Gnetales They have naked seeds, in contrast to the seeds or ovules of flowering plants ( angiosperms ) which are enclosed during pollination. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scale- or leaf-like appendages of cones , or at the end of short stalks ( Ginkgo ). The gymnosperms and angiosperms together make up the spermatophytes or seed plants . By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers ( pines , cypresses , and relatives), followed by cycads, Gnetales ( Gnetum , Ephedra and Welwitschia ), and Ginkgo (a single living species). Pics of gymnosperms: Pics of gymnosperms Angiosperms: Angiosperms Angiospermae Lindl .  or Magnoliophyta , are the most diverse group of land plants . Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies (derived characteristics ). These characteristics include flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; they are fruiting plants, although more commonly referred to as flowering plants. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 160 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 120 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60–100 million years ago. Pics of angiosperms: Pics of angiosperms Classification of plants: Classification of plants Porifera : Porifera The word porifera means organisms with holes. These are non-motile animals attached to some solid support. There are holes or pores’ all over the body. This lead to a canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen. The body design involves very minimal differentiation and division into tissues. Pics of porifera: Pics of porifera Coelenterata: Coelenterata Coelenterata is an obsolete term encompassing two animal phyla , the Ctenophora (comb jellies) and the Cnidaria ( coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies). The name comes from the Greek " koilos " ("full bellied"), referring to the hollow body cavity common to these two phyla. They have very simple tissue organization, with only two layers of cells, external and internal and radial symmetry. Some of the examples are corals , sea anemone which are colonial and hydra , jelly fish which are solitary. Pics of coelenterata: Pics of coelenterata platy helminthes: platy helminthes The flatworms , known in scientific literature as Platyhelminthes or Plathelminthes (from the Greek πλατύ , platy , meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ -), helminth - , meaning worm)  are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian , unsegmented , soft-bodied invertebrate animals . Unlike other bilaterians , they have no body cavity , and no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs , which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion . The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. PowerPoint Presentation: In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into Turbellaria , which are mostly non parasitic animals such as planarians , and three entirely parasitic groups: Cestoda , Trematoda and Monogenea ; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic , this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as leaf litter . Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land vertebrates , and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of hermaphroditic , segment- like proglottids which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host. nematodes: nematodes The nematodes /ˈ nɛmətoʊdz / or roundworms comprise the phylum Nematoda . They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a very broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish; and although over 28,000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are parasitic , the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.Unlike cnidarians and flatworms , nematodes have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends. Pics of nematode: Pics of nematode Annelida : Annelida The annelids (also called "ringed worms"), formally called Annelida (from Latin anellus "little ring"  ), are a large phylum of segmented worms , with over 2,000 modern species including ragworms , earthworms and leeches . They are found in marine environments from tidal zones to hydrothermal vents , in freshwater, and in moist terrestrial environments.They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic , coelomate organisms.They have parapodia for locomotion. Although most textbooks still use the traditional division into polychaetes (almost all marine), oligochaetes (which include earthworms) and leech-like species, research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes . In addition, the Pogonophora , Echiura and Sipuncula , previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes . Annelids are considered members of the Lophotrochozoa , a "super-phylum" of protostomes that also includes molluscs , brachiopods , flatworms and nemerteans . PowerPoint Presentation: The basic annelid form consists of multiple segments , each of which has the same sets of organs and, in most polychaetes , a pair of parapodia that many species use for locomotion . Septa separate the segments of many species, but are poorly defined or absent in some, and Echiura and Sipuncula show no obvious signs of segmentation. In species with well-developed septa, the blood circulates entirely within blood vessels , and the vessels in segments near the front ends of these species are often built up with muscles to act as hearts. The septa of these species also enable them to change the shapes of individual segments, which facilitates movement by peristalsis ("ripples" that pass along the body) or by undulations that improve the effectiveness of the parapodia . In species with incomplete septa or none, the blood circulates through the main body cavity without any kind of pump, and there is a wide range of locomotory techniques – some burrowing species turn their pharynges inside out to drag themselves through the sediment . Although many species can reproduce asexually and use similar mechanisms to regenerate after severe injuries, sexual reproduction is the normal method in species whose reproduction has been studied. The minority of living polychaetes whose reproduction and lifecycles are known produce trochophore larvae , which live as plankton and then sink and metamorphose into miniature adults. Oligochaetes are full hermaphrodites and produce a ring-like cocoon round their bodies, in which the eggs and hatchlings are nourished until they are ready to emerge. Pictures of annelids: Pictures of annelids Arthropoda : Arthropoda An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and jointed appendages . Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον árthron , " joint ", and πούς pous ( gen. podos ), i.e. "foot" or " leg ", which together mean "jointed leg"  ), and include the insects , arachnids , and crustaceans . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticles , which are mainly made of α- chitin ; the cuticles of crustaceans are also biomineralized with calcium carbonate . The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . The arthropod body plan consists of repeated segments , each with a pair of appendages . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most animals, are very successful in dry environments. They range in size from microscopic plankton up to forms a few meters long. PowerPoint Presentation: Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a hemocoel , which accommodates their internal organs and through which their blood circulates ; they have open circulatory systems . Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments. Their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus . The respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli : in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, and the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of spiders are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey. Arthropods also have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many setae (bristles) that project through their cuticles . Pics of arthropoda: Pics of arthropoda Mollusca: Mollusca Molluscs , or mollusks , are an important phylum of invertebrate animals. Most of them are marine . They have huge numbers in-shore, that is, in shallow waters near the shore. They are probably the largest marine phylum, with about 93,000 recognised species, 23% of all named marine organisms. They also occur in freshwater and on land. Most molluscs have shells, but some groups do not: octopods , slugs , and the gastropods known as sea slugs . There is great variety in the phylum, much more so than their ancient rivals, the brachiopods .  Classes of molluscs : Cephalopods : Squid , Octopus Gastropods : whelks , limpets , snails , slugs , Nudibranchs Bivalves : Most shellfish ; clams , oysters , scallops , mussels Scaphopoda : the tusk shells Polyplacophora : Chitons Monoplacophora : Aplacophora : worm-like molluscs Uses: Many molluscs are eaten as food: clams , oysters , scallops , mussels , squid (calamari) and land snails (escargot) Oysters sometimes make pearls , which are valuable and used to make necklaces . Other shells are collected for their beauty and sometimes used to make jewellery . Pics of mollusca: Pics of mollusca Echinodermata: Echinodermata Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata from Greek , ἐχῖνος , echinos – "hedgehog" und δέρμα , derma – "skin") are a phylum of marine animals . The adults are recognizable by their (usually five-point) bilateral symmetry , and include such well-known animals as starfish , sea urchins , sand dollars , and sea cucumbers . Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone . The phylum contains about 7000 living species ,  making it the second-largest grouping of deuterostomes (a superphylum ), after the chordates (which include the vertebrates , such as birds , fish , mammals , and reptiles ). Echinoderms are also the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial (land-based) representatives. PowerPoint Presentation: Aside from the hard-to-classify Arkarua (a Precambrian animal with Echinoderm-like pentamerous radial symmetry), the first definitive members of the phylum appeared near the start of the Cambrian period. The word "echinoderm" is made up from Greek ἐχινόδερμα ( echinóderma ), " spiny skin", cf. ἐχῖνος ( echínos ), "hedgehog; sea-urchin" and δέρμα ( dérma ), "skin", echinodérmata being the Greek plural form.  Pics of echindermata: Pics of echindermata You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.