Diversity in living organism by-akash

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Diversity In Living Organisms:

Diversity In Living Organisms By-Akash Kumar maharaj



The Hierarchy of classification groups:

The Hierarchy of classification groups


Monera Monera  ( / məˈnɪərə /   mə - neer -ə ) is a  kingdom  that contains unicellular organisms without a nucleus ( i.e. , a  prokaryotic   cell  organization), such as bacteria. The taxon Monera was first proposed as a phylum by  Ernst Haeckel  in 1866. Subsequently, the taxon was elevated to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by  Édouard Chatton . The last commonly accepted mega-classification with the taxon Monera was the  five-kingdom  classification system established by  Robert Whittaker  in 1969. Under the  three-domain system  of  taxonomy , which was introduced by  Carl Woese  in 1977 and reflects the evolutionary history of life, the organisms found in kingdom Monera have been divided into two  domains ,  Archaea  and  Bacteria  (with  Eukarya  as the third domain). Furthermore the taxon Monera is paraphyletic . The term " moneran " is the  informal name  of members of this group and is still sometimes used (as is the term "prokaryote") to denote a member of either domain. [1] Despite the fact that most bacteria were classified under Monera, the bacterial phylum  Cyanobacteria  (the blue-green algae) was not initially classified under Monera, but under Plantae because of the ability of its members to photosynthesize.

Pictures of monera:

Pictures of monera


Protista Protists   /ˈ proʊtɨst /  are a diverse group of  eukaryotic   microorganisms . Historically, protists were treated as a biological  kingdom formally called the  Protista  and included mostly  unicellular   organisms  that did not fit into the other kingdoms. Molecular information has been used to redefine this group in modern  taxonomy  as diverse and often distantly related  phyla . The group of protists is now considered to mean diverse phyla that are not closely related through evolution and have different  life cycles ,  trophic  levels,  modes of locomotion  and cellular structures. [1][2]  Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, the protists do not have much in common. [3]  They are unicellular, or they are  multicellular  without specialized  tissues , and this simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as  fungi ,  animals  and  plants . The term  protista  was first used by  Ernst Haeckel  in 1866. Protists were traditionally subdivided into several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the unicellular "animal-like"  protozoa , the "plant-like"  protophyta  (mostly unicellular  algae ), and the "fungus-like"  slime molds  and  water molds . These traditional subdivisions, largely based on superficial commonalities, have been replaced by  classifications  based on  phylogenetics  ( evolutionary  relatedness among organisms). However, the older terms are still used as informal names to describe the  morphology  and  ecology  of various protists . Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Many protists , such as the  algae , are  photosynthetic  and are vital primary producers  in ecosystems, particularly in the ocean as part of the  plankton . Other protists , such as the  kinetoplastids   and apicomplexans , are responsible for a range of serious human diseases, such as  malaria  and  sleeping sickness .

Picture of protista:

Picture of protista


fungi The  fungi  (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a  kingdom  within the  Domain Eukaryota . Included are the conspicuous  mushrooms , but also many microscopic forms such as  molds  and  yeasts . A  fungus  (plural:  fungi ) is a kind of living organism:  yeasts ,  moulds  and  mushrooms  are types of fungi. The fungi are a separate  kingdom  of living things, different from  animals  and  plants . Fungi have  cells  with  nuclei . Their cell walls contain  chitin , unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain  cellulose . These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, called the Eumycota or Eumycetes . They share a common ancestor and are  monophyletic  group. Their basic mode of life is  saprophytic : a fungus breaks down dead  organic matter  around it, and uses it as food.

Pictures of fungi:

Pictures of fungi


plantae These are multicellular eukaryotes with cell wall. They are autotrophes and use chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Thus, all plants are included in this group.


Animalia Animals  are  multicellular ,  eukaryotic   organisms  of the  kingdom   Animalia  or  Metazoa . Their  body plan  eventually becomes fixed as they  develop , although some undergo a process of  metamorphosis  later on in their lives. Most animals are  motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals must ingest other organisms or their products for  sustenance  ( see Heterotroph ). Most known animal  phyla  appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the  Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals are divided into various sub-groups, including  birds ,  mammals ,  amphibians ,  reptiles ,  fish  and  insects .

Pictures of animalia:

Pictures of animalia

The five kingdom classification:

The five kingdom classification


Thallophyta The  thallophytes  ( Thallophyta  or  Thallobionta ) are a  polyphyletic  group of non-mobile  organisms  traditionally described as " thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or " lower plants ". Several different definitions of the group have been used. Most authors [ citation needed ]  define the thallophytes as having undifferentiated bodies ( thalli ), as opposed to cormophytes ( Cormophyta ) with roots and stems. They were a defunct  division  of  Kingdom Plantae  that included  fungus ,  lichens  and  algae  and occasionally  bryophytes ,  bacteria and the  Myxomycota . They have a hidden reproductive system and hence they are also called  Cryptogamae  (together with  ferns ), as opposed to  Phanerogamae . Stephan Endlicher , a 19th-century  Austrian   botanist , separated the vegetable kingdom into the Thallophytes (algae, lichens, fungi) and the  Cormophytes  (including  bryophytes  and thus being equivalent to  Embryophyta  in this case) in 1836. [1][2] In the  Lindley system  (1830–1839), Endlicher's Cormophytes were divided into the  Thallogens  (including the bryophytes), and  Cormogens  ("non-flowering" plants with roots), as well as the six other classes. Cormogens were a much smaller group than Endlicher's Cormophytes , [3]  including just the ferns (and  Equisetopsida ) and the plants now known as lycopodiophytes .

Pictures of thallophyte:

Pictures of thallophyte


Bryophyta These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom. The plant body is commonly differentiated to form stemand leaf like structure. There is no specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substance from one part of the plant body to another.

Pictures of bryophyta:

Pictures of bryophyta


Pteridophyta Pteridophytes  or  Pteridophyta , in the broad interpretation of the term (or  sensu lato ), are  vascular plants  (plants with  xylem  and  phloem ) that reproduce and  disperse  via  spores . Because they produce neither  flowers  nor  seeds , they are referred to as  cryptogams . The group includes  ferns ,  horsetails ,  clubmosses ,  spikemosses  and  quillworts . These do not form a  monophyletic group , because ferns and horsetails are more closely related to  seed plants  than to  lycophytes  ( clubmosses , spikemosses and quillworts ). Therefore, pteridophytes are no longer considered to form a valid  taxon , but the term is still used as an informal way to refer to ferns ( monilophytes ) and  lycophytes , and some recent authors have used the term to refer strictly to the monilophytes .

Pictures of pteridophyta:

Pictures of pteridophyta


Gymnosperms The  gymnosperms  are a group of  seed plants  which includes  conifers ,  cycads ,  Ginkgo . [1]  The group may, doubtfully, include the Gnetales They have naked seeds, in contrast to the seeds or ovules of  flowering plants  ( angiosperms ) which are enclosed during pollination. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scale- or leaf-like appendages of  cones , or at the end of short stalks ( Ginkgo ). The gymnosperms and angiosperms together make up the  spermatophytes  or  seed plants . By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the  conifers  ( pines ,  cypresses , and relatives), followed by cycads, Gnetales ( Gnetum ,  Ephedra  and  Welwitschia ), and Ginkgo  (a single living species).

Pics of gymnosperms:

Pics of gymnosperms


Angiosperms Angiospermae   Lindl . [2][3]  or  Magnoliophyta , are the most diverse group of  land plants . Angiosperms are  seed-producing plants  like the  gymnosperms  and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies  (derived  characteristics ). These characteristics include  flowers ,  endosperm  within the seeds, and the production of  fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically,  angiosperm  means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; they are fruiting plants, although more commonly referred to as flowering plants. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from  gymnosperms  around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 160 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the  Lower Cretaceous  and became widespread around 120 million years ago, but replaced  conifers  as the dominant trees only around 60–100 million years ago.

Pics of angiosperms:

Pics of angiosperms

Classification of plants:

Classification of plants

Porifera :

Porifera The word porifera means organisms with holes. These are non-motile animals attached to some solid support. There are holes or pores’ all over the body. This lead to a canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen. The body design involves very minimal differentiation and division into tissues.

Pics of porifera:

Pics of porifera


Coelenterata Coelenterata  is an obsolete term encompassing two animal  phyla , the  Ctenophora  (comb jellies) and the  Cnidaria  ( coral  animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies). The name comes from the  Greek  " koilos " ("full bellied"), referring to the hollow  body cavity  common to these two phyla. They have very simple  tissue  organization, with only two layers of cells, external and internal and radial symmetry. Some of the examples are  corals ,  sea anemone  which are colonial and  hydra ,  jelly fish  which are solitary.

Pics of coelenterata:

Pics of coelenterata

platy helminthes:

platy helminthes The  flatworms , known in scientific literature as  Platyhelminthes  or  Plathelminthes  (from the  Greek   πλατύ ,  platy , meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ -),  helminth - , meaning worm) [2]  are a  phylum  of relatively simple  bilaterian ,  unsegmented , soft-bodied  invertebrate animals . Unlike other bilaterians , they have no  body cavity , and no specialized  circulatory  and  respiratory   organs , which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow  oxygen  and nutrients to pass through their bodies by  diffusion . The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In traditional zoology texts, Platyhelminthes are divided into  Turbellaria , which are mostly non parasitic  animals such as  planarians , and three entirely parasitic groups:  Cestoda ,  Trematoda  and  Monogenea ; however, since the turbellarians have since been proven not to be monophyletic , this classification is now deprecated. Free-living flatworms are mostly predators, and live in water or in shaded, humid terrestrial environments such as  leaf litter . Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) have complex life-cycles, with mature stages that live as parasites in the digestive systems of fish or land  vertebrates , and intermediate stages that infest secondary hosts. The eggs of trematodes are excreted from their main hosts, whereas adult cestodes generate vast numbers of  hermaphroditic , segment- like proglottids  which detach when mature, are excreted, and then release eggs. Unlike the other parasitic groups, the monogeneans are external parasites infesting aquatic animals, and their larvae metamorphose into the adult form after attaching to a suitable host.


nematodes The  nematodes   /ˈ nɛmətoʊdz /  or  roundworms  comprise the  phylum   Nematoda . They are a diverse animal  phylum  inhabiting a very broad range of environments. Nematode  species  can be difficult to distinguish; and although over 28,000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are  parasitic , the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.Unlike   cnidarians   and flatworms , nematodes have tubular  digestive systems  with openings at both ends.

Pics of nematode:

Pics of nematode

Annelida :

Annelida The  annelids  (also called "ringed worms"), formally called  Annelida  (from  Latin   anellus  "little ring" [2] ), are a large  phylum  of segmented worms , with over 2,000 modern species including  ragworms ,  earthworms  and  leeches . They are found in marine environments from  tidal zones  to  hydrothermal vents , in freshwater, and in moist terrestrial environments.They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic , coelomate organisms.They have parapodia for locomotion. Although most textbooks still use the traditional division into  polychaetes  (almost all marine),  oligochaetes  (which include earthworms) and leech-like species, research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes . In addition, the  Pogonophora ,  Echiura and   Sipuncula , previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes . Annelids are considered members of the  Lophotrochozoa , a "super-phylum" of  protostomes  that also includes  molluscs ,  brachiopods ,  flatworms  and  nemerteans .

PowerPoint Presentation:

The basic annelid form consists of multiple  segments , each of which has the same sets of organs and, in most polychaetes , a pair of parapodia  that many species use for  locomotion .  Septa  separate the segments of many species, but are poorly defined or absent in some, and Echiura and Sipuncula show no obvious signs of segmentation. In species with well-developed septa, the blood circulates entirely within  blood vessels , and the vessels in segments near the front ends of these species are often built up with muscles to act as hearts. The septa of these species also enable them to change the shapes of individual segments, which facilitates movement by peristalsis  ("ripples" that pass along the body) or by  undulations  that improve the effectiveness of the parapodia . In species with incomplete septa or none, the blood circulates through the main body cavity without any kind of pump, and there is a wide range of locomotory techniques – some burrowing species turn their  pharynges  inside out to drag themselves through the  sediment . Although many species can reproduce  asexually  and use similar mechanisms to regenerate after severe injuries,  sexual reproduction  is the normal method in species whose reproduction has been studied. The minority of living polychaetes whose reproduction and lifecycles are known produce  trochophore   larvae , which live as  plankton  and then sink and  metamorphose  into miniature adults. Oligochaetes are full  hermaphrodites  and produce a ring-like  cocoon  round their bodies, in which the eggs and hatchlings are nourished until they are ready to emerge.

Pictures of annelids:

Pictures of annelids

Arthropoda :

Arthropoda An  arthropod  is an  invertebrate   animal  having an  exoskeleton  (external  skeleton ), a segmented body, and jointed appendages . Arthropods are members of the  phylum   Arthropoda  (from  Greek   ἄρθρον   árthron , " joint ", and  πούς   pous  ( gen. podos ), i.e. "foot" or " leg ", which together mean "jointed leg" [2] ), and include the  insects ,  arachnids , and  crustaceans . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and  cuticles , which are mainly made of α- chitin ; the cuticles of crustaceans are also  biomineralized  with  calcium carbonate . The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by  moulting . The arthropod  body plan  consists of repeated  segments , each with a pair of  appendages . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all  ecological guilds  in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most animals, are very successful in dry environments. They range in size from microscopic  plankton  up to forms a few meters long.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a  hemocoel , which accommodates their internal  organs  and through which their  blood circulates ; they have  open circulatory systems . Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments. Their  nervous system  is "ladder-like", with paired  ventral   nerve cords  running through all segments and forming paired  ganglia  in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their  brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the  esophagus . The  respiratory  and  excretory  systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the  subphylum  to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of  compound eyes  and pigment-pit  ocelli : in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, and the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of  spiders  are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey. Arthropods also have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many  setae  (bristles) that project through their cuticles .

Pics of arthropoda:

Pics of arthropoda


Mollusca Molluscs , or  mollusks , are an important  phylum  of  invertebrate  animals. Most of them are  marine . They have huge numbers in-shore, that is, in shallow waters near the shore. They are probably the largest marine phylum, with about 93,000 recognised species, 23% of all named marine organisms. They also occur in freshwater and on land. Most molluscs have shells, but some groups do not:  octopods ,  slugs , and the gastropods  known as  sea slugs . There is great variety in the phylum, much more so than their ancient rivals, the  brachiopods . [1] Classes of molluscs : Cephalopods :  Squid ,  Octopus Gastropods :  whelks ,  limpets ,  snails ,  slugs ,  Nudibranchs Bivalves : Most  shellfish ;  clams ,  oysters ,  scallops ,  mussels Scaphopoda : the tusk shells Polyplacophora :  Chitons Monoplacophora : Aplacophora : worm-like molluscs Uses: Many molluscs are eaten as food:  clams ,  oysters ,  scallops ,  mussels ,  squid  (calamari) and land  snails  (escargot) Oysters sometimes make  pearls , which are valuable and used to make  necklaces . Other shells are collected for their beauty and sometimes used to make  jewellery .

Pics of mollusca:

Pics of mollusca


Echinodermata Echinoderms  (Phylum  Echinodermata  from  Greek , ἐχῖνος ,  echinos  – "hedgehog" und δέρμα ,  derma  – "skin") are a  phylum  of  marine animals . The adults are recognizable by their (usually five-point)  bilateral symmetry , and include such well-known animals as  starfish ,  sea urchins ,  sand dollars , and  sea cucumbers . Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the  intertidal zone  to the  abyssal zone . The phylum contains about 7000 living  species , [1]  making it the second-largest grouping of  deuterostomes  (a superphylum ), after the chordates  (which include the  vertebrates , such as  birds ,  fish ,  mammals , and  reptiles ). Echinoderms are also the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial (land-based) representatives.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Aside from the hard-to-classify  Arkarua  (a  Precambrian  animal with Echinoderm-like pentamerous radial symmetry), the first definitive members of the phylum appeared near the start of the  Cambrian  period. The word "echinoderm" is made up from  Greek   ἐχινόδερμα ( echinóderma ), " spiny  skin", cf. ἐχῖνος ( echínos ), "hedgehog; sea-urchin" and δέρμα ( dérma ), "skin",  echinodérmata  being the Greek plural form. [2]

Pics of echindermata:

Pics of echindermata

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