Illiteracy a curse and literacy a boon.

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Illiteracy a curse and literacy a boon.:

Illiteracy a curse and literacy a boon. English project work By: Ananya Singh Class: X ‘a’ 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 1

Illiteracy as curse:

Illiteracy as curse According to the guidelines laid down by the UN, Illiteracy is defined as “The inability to read and write a simple message in any language.” Let’s first analyze this definition closely. An illiterate person is like a handicapped person who is unfamiliar with the happenings in his surroundings, cannot even do basic day to day things like driving because of his lack of ability to understand the basic symbols and traffic signs, cannot read the menus at restaurants. The illiteracy rates vary from region to region depending on the factors like wealth and urbanization. One common thing to be pointed out in the countries with high illiteracy rates is the social custom which curbs the education of females. The main reason behind the progress of developed countries can be attributed to their high literacy rates. This is because high literacy rates means more knowledgeable and skilled people in the country (what we call human capital). Literate people can understand and learn the things more easily, so they enjoy a higher socio-economic status as well as catalyze the development of the country as a whole. Even if we look into the history, we will find that literacy is the pre requisite for development of the country. The countries like Afghanistan, Niger, Guinea, Benin, Somalia, which have low literacy rates also have lower developing rates in comparison to countries with high literacy rates. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 2

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Its hard to figure out whether the issues like child labor, population growth etc are consequences of high illiteracy rate or whether the situation is other way round Whatever may be the answer, one thing is for sure that there is a cycle of issues, all interconnected, and fighting against one will definitely affect the chain. To liberate ourselves from the shackles of ignorance, poverty etc , we need to get out of this vicious circle. We all recognize that illiteracy is bed, that it prevents the cultural growth of a people. But illiteracy in our country continues to exist on an appalling scale. Even today among ten in India about five are illiterate. Nor is there any organized effort to do away with this deplorable state of backlog. We tinker at the problem instead of tackling it thoroughly. We made experiments. The States have ambitious programmed of setting up primary schools in every village, but these are yet in the cold shade of neglect. The measures taken so far includes free teaching sessions, educational seminars, programmes and workshops conducted by different organizations. Involving people in different ways to create leadership opportunities for youth, learn the acts of fellowship and internships etc. Building up of new schools, colleges etc in all parts of the country is yet another step taken in this regard . 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 3

Reasons and solution:

Reasons and solution The major reason behind the failure of these programs and actions is the non – participation of people living in rural areas, lack of awareness, corruption involved while utilizing the money donated for building of the schools and colleges. Also the government puts more emphasis on deficit models rather than analyzing the situation properly and making people learn the things they are good at. People are forced to learn the things in which they are least interested and thus it hinders the development of their personality as a whole. People should be allowed to choose their area of interest and then the respective teaching sessions should be conducted. Moreover the capital donated for building up of educational institutes should be kept under check by vigilance department. Moreover the illegal practices can be stopped by keeping a track on the whole development process, from construction to management of the educational organizations. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 4

Facts :

Facts It is really most unfortunate that we have 296 million illiterates, age seven years and above, as per the 2001 census. To spread literacy among the children in about 100,000 villages in India is a formidable task. According to UN Report “The Education For All–Global Monitoring Report”, India is making good progress to eradicate illiteracy. It is surprising that two-thirds of the total illiterate people are women. “Many of the 8.3 million Indian children born with low birth weight will carry a burden of disadvantage with them into primary school,.. in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Nepal, the big challenge is keeping children in school once they enroll,” the Report further added. If the children drop out of the school early, their unoccupied minds may lead them to criminal activities. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 5

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High illiteracy rates in rural parts of India is an area of the Indian education system that cannot be overlooked. Hampered by the government and by other factors the quality of education in rural districts has been quite poor. High dropout rates and low enrollment by the children have contributed to the large illiteracy rate. Kerala, a rural state of India boasts many areas of progress and serves as a model for other rural areas and many of the wealthier parts of India. Without drastic changes by the government and by its citizens, India is well on its way to becoming the world’s most illiterate nation. We, the youth have got the freedom of speech. Lets join hands and enlighten the world. conclusion 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 6

Literacy as blessing.:

Literacy as blessing. Traditionally literacy has been commonly defined as the ability to read and write at an adequate level of proficiency that is necessary for communication. More recently however, literacy has taken on several meanings. Technological literacy, mathematical literacy, and visual literacy are just a few examples. While it may be difficult to gauge the degree to which literacy has an impact on an individual’s overall happiness, one can easily infer that an increase in literacy will lead to the improvement of an individual’s life and the development of societies. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 7

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While in developed nations, the majority of the population over the age of 17 possesses basic literacy skills in reading and writing,, the rate of literacy in developing nations is much lower. This lack of widespread literacy hinders the further development of such nations. International agencies like UNESCO are campaigning to raise literacy rates worldwide. While progress has been made and literacy rates have increased, the growth in population worldwide has led to a further expansion of illiterate individuals. UNESCO has found a correlation between illiteracy and poverty, low life expectancy, and political oppression. Literacy campaigns around the world also include programs to increase the level of adult literacy. Increasing literacy rates among adults can serve several purposes. Equipping adults with basic literacy skills can enable them to be more proactive when it comes to their child’s education. As this works to increase literacy, political conditions in oppressive countries may improve. Moreover an increase in literate adults means an increase in individuals campaigning for education as a fundamental human right. Sri Lanka is an example of a developing nation that has shown a dramatic increase in literacy. Sri Lanka has a literacy rate of 96%, one of the highest literacy rates in all of South Asia and much higher than that expected of a developing country. This can be attributed to the country’s policy of providing free education to all children regardless of income. Additionally, the illiteracy rate for adults 15-24 is only 4.4% according to the 2001 census. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 8

Photo gallery :

Photo gallery 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 9

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The blessing of literacy 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 10

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23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 11

Literacy in India :

Literacy in India 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 12 Literacy in India is key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947. Although this was a greater than six fold improvement, the level is well below the world average literacy rate of 84%, and India currently has the largest illiterate population of any nation on earth. Despite government programs, India's literacy rate increased only "sluggishly,"[and a 1990 study estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at then-current rate of progress. The 2011 census, however, indicated a 2001-2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is the slower than the growth seen during the previous decade. There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates (age 7 and above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. The low female literacy rate has had a dramatically negative impact on family planning and population stabilization efforts in India. Studies have indicated that female literacy is a strong predictor of the use of contraception among married Indian couples, even when women do not otherwise have economic independence. The census provided a positive indication that growth in female literacy rates (11.8%) was substantially faster than in male literacy rates (6.9%) in the 2001-2011 decadal period, which means the gender gap appears to be narrowing.

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. 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 13 The British Period Literacy in India grew very slowly until independence in 1947. An acceleration in the rate of literacy growth occurred in the 1991-2001 period. Prior to the British era, education in Indian commenced under the supervision of a guru in traditional schools called gurukuls. The gurukuls were supported by public donation and were one of the earliest forms of public school offices. In the colonial era, the gurukul system began to decline as the system promoted by the British began to gradually take over. Between 1881-82 and 1946–47, the number of English primary schools grew from 82,916 to 134,866 and the number of students in English Schools grew from 2,061,541 to 10,525,943. Literacy rates in accordance to British in India rose from 3.2 per cent in 1881 to 7.2 per cent in 1931 and 12.2 per cent in 1947. In 2000-01, there were 60,840 pre-primary and pre-basic schools, and 664,041 primary and junior basic schools. Total enrollment at the primary level has increased from 19,200,000 in 1950-51 to 109,800,000 in 2001-02 .The number of high schools in 2000-01 was higher than the number of primary schools at the time of independence. In 1944, the Government of British India presented a plan, called the Sergeant Scheme for the educational reconstruction of India, with a goal of producing 100% literacy in the country within 40 years, i.e. by 1984.Although the 40 year time-frame was derided at the time by leaders of the Indian independence movement as being too long a period to achieve universal literacy, India had only just crossed the 74% level by the 2011 census Its growth

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23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 14 Post Independence The provision of universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished national ideal and had been given overriding priority by incorporation as a Directive Policy in Article 45 of the Constitution, but it is still to be achieved more than half a century since the Constitution was adopted in 1949. Parliament has passed the Constitution 86th Amendment Act, 2002, to make elementary education a Fundamental Right for children in the age group of 6–14 years.[35] In order to provide more funds for education, an education cuss of 2 per cent has been imposed on all direct and indirect central taxes through the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004.[36] The literacy rate grew from 18.33 per cent in 1951, to 28.30 per cent in 1961, 34.45 per cent in 1971, 43.57 per cent in 1981, 52.21 per cent in 1991, 64.84 per cent in 2001 and 74.04 per cent in 2011.[37] During the same period, the population grew from 361 million to 1,210 million.

!!Thank You!!:

!!Thank You!! 23-Dec-12 by: Ananya Singh 15

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