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How IS Wool Made:

How IS Wool Made Class Vll A K.V.NO1 Binnaguri Cantt Subject- Science Slide Presentation By Gourave Singh

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Processing Shearing Sheep shearing is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken,bellies, and locks. [7] The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing , whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. In Australia , before being auctioned all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron , yield (including the amount of vegetable matter), staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and comfort factor.


Wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals , including cashmere from goats , mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen , vicuña , alpaca , and camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits . Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped , it is elastic , and it grows in staples (clusters ).

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Characteristics Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so that they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles, and retain air, which causes the product to retain heat. Insulation also works both ways; Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes to keep heat out. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while the coarser wools like karakul may have as few as 1 to 2. Hair, by contrast, has little if any scale and no crimp, and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp . The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed, and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning , felting , or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products including the famous Tweed (cloth) cloth of Scotland. Characteristics

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Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" [8] or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin , as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, pesticide, and vegetable matter. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali , and specialized equipment. [9] In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization . [10] In less processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand, and some of the lanolin left intact through use of gentler detergents. This semi-grease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in cosmetic products such as hand creams. Scouring

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Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per year, of which 60 % goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third-largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln , Romney , Tukidale , Dryable and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets . In the United States, Texas , New Mexico and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). There is also a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. Production

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Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers. [33] As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil , or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp . This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years. Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves . Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface. [33] Woollen is a soft, short- staple , carded wool yarn typically used for knitting. [33] In traditional weaving, woollen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom. [3 Yarns

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Wool production and use dates back approximately 10,000 years in Asia Minor. People living in the Mesopotamian Plain at that time used sheep for three basic human needs: food, clothing and shelter. As spinning and weaving skills developed woollens became a greater part of people's lives. The warmth of wool clothing and the mobility of sheep allowed people to spread civilisation beyond the warm climate of the Mesopotamia. Between 3000-1000 BC the Persians, Greeks and Romans distributed sheep and wool throughout Europe. The Romans took sheep everywhere they built their Empire including the British Isles. From here the British took sheep to all their colonies Wool Fibres

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Pashmina refers to a type of fine cashmere wool and the textiles made from it. The name comes from Pashmineh made from Urdu and Persian pashm ("wool"). The wool comes from changthangi or pashmina goat, which is a special breed of goat indigenous to high altitudes of the Himalayas in Nepal , Pakistan and northern India . Pashmina shawls are hand spun , woven and embroidered in Kashmir, and made from fine cashmere fibre. Pashmina Pashmina Sheep Pashmina Fibres Pashmina Shawl

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