by Ajit Abhyankar, India. : Towards Understanding India Towards Understanding India…….
Through its Intellectual Tradition by Ajit Abhyankar, India. India is known for . . . . . 1. : India is known for . . . . . 1. Being a large , populous country (1.1Billions, 1/6th of the world Population, just 1/ 14th Area)
Having unity in maximum diversities (16)major languages, (8) religions, (innumerable) sects, creed,
An ancient civilization. i. e. material-technological achievements, social system, (As old as 5000BC)
Spread of its ideas-views, over a large part of the world , in an absolutely peaceful interaction e.g. Buddhism , Vedanta, epic literature India is known for . . . . . 2 . : India is known for . . . . . 2 . Most absorbing , tolerant society and a secular nation -state ( although with a small but not negligible challenges from certain organized groups)
Peculiar form of freedom movement (led by Mahatma Gandhi) against the British imperialism
Democratic political management (most secular , democratic socialistic )after attaining freedom India is known for . . . . . 3 . : India is known for . . . . . 3 . A highly unequal & unique caste system which still has its influence on the culture , psyche, and even the democratic politics
Immense Poverty amidst Development, High Growth and advancement
Lack of reliable systemic governance Study of Indian Philosophy is necessary because …… : Study of Indian Philosophy is necessary because …… The essence of the intellectual life of a society is reflected in its philosophy…….
The roots of Indian culture can be traced there…
The roots of diversity, unity and continuity tolerance , non-violence and secularism as values can be traced here
It may throw a light on the most unhealthy & unequal caste system perpetuating in India What do we refer as Philosophy ? : What do we refer as Philosophy ? Philosophy here refers to a world view . A vision of
life encompassing the
Metaphysics - the philosophical investigation of the nature of reality, being, or existence.
Epistemology - the philosophical investigation of the nature of knowledge & truth & of the differences between knowledge & opinion & between truth & falsity.
Axiology - philosophical investigation of the nature of value(s) & of the foundations of value judgments. Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities ..1 : Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities ..1 There is no uniform and unique philosophy as ‘Indian Philosophy’ , emerging out of a monolithic faith.
There is no monolith in India. Pluralism is the Indian way of living and thinking
Indian Philosophy includes a wide range of philosophical views that originated in India. They are known in India as Darashana (s) , meaning a vision, a perspective. Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities 2.. : Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities 2.. Although some Indian Philosophical Systems are equivalent of religious faiths, they are
Not based on the revelations from the Almighty God (as in semitic religions) Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities ..3 : Indian Philosophy- Peculiarities ..3 Indian Philosophies are not just the systems developed by the great minds as freak of thoughts ; they are the organic products of the of the paths in the practice of liberation from pain ,lust, greed, violence, suffering and even the hollowness of human life.
Hence Indian Philosophical systems are Praxis and not just thoughts. Examples- Buddhism, Yoga, Jainism, Sikhhism, Classification of Indian Philosophical Schools Darshanas as ‘Astika’ and ‘Nastika’ : Classification of Indian Philosophical Schools Darshanas as ‘Astika’ and ‘Nastika’ Astika Darshanas -Believing in the Sanctity of Vedas
1. Mimansa-Based on Yagnas in Vedas
2 &3. Nyaya -Vaisheshika- Based on realistic and Logical
4 &5. Samkhya -Yoga Based upon realistic understanding
of universe and yogic practices of Meditation & Samadhi
6. Advaita Vedanta- Based on the monism . Aimed at
realisation of the ultimate reality of Brahama, negating
the validity of this world around us, by knowledge Classification of Indian Philosophies contd….. : Classification of Indian Philosophies contd….. Nastika Darshanas (Rejecting the sanctity of Vedas,
Varna-Caste as the qualifications for knowledge)
Lokayata or Charvaka Darshana – A Materialistic school negating any Vedas. God, Holy spirit or Soul and any life after death
Buddhist Darshana- A path based on idealistic interpretation of universe aimed at liberation from cycle of rebirth, through ascetic rejection of egotism and egoist orientation of life ... Classification of Indian Philosophies Nastika Darshanas contd….. : Classification of Indian Philosophies Nastika Darshanas contd….. 3. Jain Darshan – A path based on absolute non-violence , truth aimed at liberation from the life and death cycle. Starting from the aknowledgement of limited relativistic understanding of universe . Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy...1.. : Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy...1.. Atman- Soul -
Indestructible ,immortal , absolute spirit
Other than body and mind
Pure Conscious self
Soul is immortal -Does not die with body.
It is reborn in a new body as fruit of the actions in the previous birth Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy ...2 : Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy ...2 Moksha
Salvation-Liberation of self
From bondage of desires / wants of body
Into the Eternal Inexplicable Bliss
Final abode: but not heaven or hell
It may be an experience in the life itself Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy ...3 : Basic Terms in Indian Philosophy ...3 Retribution Theory- Karma Theory
Eternal Perpetual rule of providence
Of the cycle of birth -death-birth
Not even in the hands of God
Life today is the culmination of my good /bad actions in previous births
Hence monitor your actions today Mere Philosophy would not do… : Mere Philosophy would not do… However , a proviso is to be added. Let us not
forget, ideas are not merely the intellectual
products. They are created by the men who are
themselves the products of history and their times.
Hence merely the study of philosophy will not
suffice to understand India. One will have to study
the civilizational history of India. It shall include the
production systems, technology ,social relations in