Slide 1: BIOMASS
Biomass is the waste organic matter which is used as a source of energy or as a chemical feedstock.
It is a renewable or non-conventional source of energy i.e. it is continuously produced in the nature and is non-exhaustible. Slide 3: BIOMASS SOURCES Biomass Energy is derived from four distinct energy sources :
Waste Energy (includes Garbage)
Alcohol Fuels Slide 4: WOOD Largest source of energy from
Wood is BLACK LIQUOR. Wood as a source of Biomass Black Liquor used for gasification Black Liquor is mainly used as the
source of energy in pulping mills. It is also used in the process of
gasification Slide 5: WASTE ENERGY Waste To Energy (WTE) or Energy From Waste (EFW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration i.e. the combustion of organic material.
Waste energy is the second largest source of biomass energy.
The major contributors of waste energy are Municipal Solid Waste and Manufacturing Waste. Slide 6: LANDFILL GASES Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill. Slide 7: BIOMASS ALCOHOL FUEL It is Ethanol which is primarily derived from sugarcane and corn.
It can be used directly as a fuel or as an addictive to gasoline . Slide 8: THERMAL CONVERSION There are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. These processes are known as thermal process for biomass conversion. Slide 9: Classification of Thermal Process of Conversion of Biomass Biochemical conversion by combustion : Biochemical conversion by combustion Slide 11: COMBUSTION Combustion is the process in which flammable materials are allowed to burn
in the presence of air or oxygen with the release of heat.
Combustion is just OXIDATION. The heat released can itself be used in many ways :
Steam heating for electricity generation
Water heating for central heating GASIFICATION : GASIFICATION Process in which a carbon source like biomass is broken down into products like H2,CO2,CO and/or CH4 by subjecting it to partial oxidation is called gasification. : APPLICATIONS OF GASIFICATION:
Heating water for different purposes gasifier : gasifier PYROLYSIS : PYROLYSIS It is defined as the process of thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen.
Main product obtained by pyrolysis is bio-oil
FEATURES OF BIO-OIL:
Dark brown in colour
Low heating value(as compared to conventional fuel oil)
Bio-oil thus obtained can be directly burnt,modified to match properties to other fuel oils and gasified or co-fired. : FEATURES OF BIO-OIL:
Dark brown in colour
Low heating value(as compared to conventional fuel oil)
Bio-oil thus obtained can be directly burnt,modified to match properties to other fuel oils and gasified or co-fired. Bio oil obtained from pyrolysis : Bio oil obtained from pyrolysis The remainder of the bio-oil can then be combusted to generate electricity or converted to a syngas, from which chemicals and clean fuels can be synthesized Bio-oils : Bio-oils The remainder of the bio-oil can then be combusted to generate electricity or converted to a syngas, from which chemicals and clean fuels can be synthesized Applications of Biomass : Applications of Biomass 1.Biofuels
Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation
Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases
Other examples are: Biodiesel, Biogas, Solid biofuels, etc. Biodiesel - clean, green fuel : Biodiesel - clean, green fuel Renewable - Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oil which is essentially grown - a sustainable resource that will not run out. BIOGAS : BIOGAS Biogas is a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is the anaerobic digestion of different types of organic waste like plant waste,animal waste,sewage,biomass,municipal waste manure etc.Biogas is a type of biofuel.
Main constituents of biogas are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and moisture . ORGANIC WASTE : ORGANIC WASTE GARBAGE WASTE ANIMAL WASTE KITCHEN WASTE PLANT AND CROP WASTE BIOGAS PRODUCTION : BIOGAS PRODUCTION Production of biogas takes place in a biogas plant
Oragnic matter like garbage,plant and animal waste are added to anaerobic digestors along with sludge and fertilizers
Biogas containing methane as the main product is produced which can be ised for different purposes like heating,lighting etc BIOGAS PRODUCTION : BIOGAS PRODUCTION Applications of biogas : Applications of biogas Biogas can be used for energy production
It is used for cooking,space heating, water heating
Due to its compressibility it can replace natural gas for use in vehicles which is much more effective
It can also be used for lighting and generating electricity APPS OF BIOMASS : APPS OF BIOMASS BIOGAS LAMP COOKING ELECTRICITY GENERATION Advantages of biogas : Advantages of biogas It is a renewable source of fuel
Due to compressibility it can be used instead of natural gas thus preventing exhaustion of natural gas
It has large production output and low production cost ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS : ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS ADVANTAGES
1) Biomass reduces need for fossil fuels for the production of heat, steam, and electricity
2)Biomass fuel from agriculture wastes maybe a secondary product that adds value to agricultural crop.
3)Growing Biomass crops produce oxygen and use up carbon dioxide.
4)The use of waste materials reduce landfill disposal and makes more space for everything else.
5)Carbon Dioxide which is released when Biomass fuel is burned, is taken in by plants.
6)Less money spent on foreign oil. Slide 29: DISADVANTAGES
Could contribute a great deal to global warming due to release of greenhouse gases and particulate pollution if directly burned.
On a small scale there is most likely a net loss of energy--energy must be put into grow the plant mass.
Extra costs of installing technology to process and recycle wastes
Expensive to collect, harvest and store raw materials
Large scale crop production will use vast areas of land and water,representing major problems. EFFICIENCY OF BIOMASS : EFFICIENCY OF BIOMASS The efficiency of fuel usage is increased by
use of improved designs of stoves which double the efficiency such as smokeless energy efficient chulhas
compressing the biomass to form briquettes which not only occupy lesser space but also are more efficient
conversion of organic matter into biogas through anaerobic digestion which apart from meeting fuel needs also gives digested manure for farms
conversion of biomass into producer gas through partial combustion of biomass under controlled air supply ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOGAS : ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOGAS ADVANTAGES
Conversion of natural organic waste into fertilizer.
Eco friendly energy production.
Considerable workload reduction in rural areas.
Visible improvement in rural hygiene.
Environmental benefits on a global scale.
Protects the earth's natural resources.
Due to uniform distribution, thermal efficiency is higher.
Biogas would encourage deflation of goods prices, due to many producers, and surplus goods availability to the populace.
biogas will bring about high corruption level, from the top to the lowest level in the public.
pollution would be on the increase both sound, air, and water pollution. due to many industrial waste materials in the society.
There would be FOOD SHORTAGE, in the countries in the world, especially those nations with limited land for food production. Slide 32: It is estimated that India can produce power of about 17,000 MW using biogas. This is over 10% of the total electricity installed capacity in India.
The advantages of biogas-based energy generation are as follows:
1. It is based on renewable sources
2. It can provide distributed energy generation, thereby providing much-needed energy for remote locations and villages.
3. In many cases, it provides a beneficial way of disposing organic waste CURRENT POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS POWER IN INDIA : CURRENT POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS POWER IN INDIA As India has a large amount of biomass, there is a high biomass potential in India. The table below provides an estimate of the current biomass potential in India.
Estimate of Current Biomass Potential in India (2010)