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A Review on RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATION Presented By Mr. SURANA A.R Department of Pharmacognosy S.M.B.T. College of Pharmacy Dhamangaon , Nandi-Hills, Tal.-Igatpuri , Dist.- Nashik .

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Introduction Definition General properties of resin Occurrence Classification Chemistry Identification test Isolation of resins Drugs Containing Resins: Reference CONTENT

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Definition Resin may be defined as complex amorphous product of more or less solid characteristics, which, on heating, first soften and then melts. Resins form an ill-defined group of plant products which are produced normally during growth or secreted as a result of injury to the plant. General properties of resins: 1. Hard, transparent or translucent brittle materials. 2.Amorphous materials but rarely crystallisable in nature. 3.Resins are bad conductors of electricity. 4.Specific gravity ranging from 0.9-1.25. 5. Solubility.

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Occurrence: Resins are plant products with the exception of shellac, insect secretion. They are formed in the schizogenous ducts / cavities . The resinous exudation may consist almost entirely of resin e.g. Benzoin; Resin when associated with gum ; it is an gum-resin Resin when associated with volatile oil ; it is an oleo-resin when a considerable proportion of volatile oil also present it is called an oleo-gum-resin eg. Myrrh. Those resins or oleo-resins which contain benzoic or cinnamic acid either free or combined are commonly called balsmas. e.g. Benzoin Balasam of Tolu.

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Classification: . Basis of their occurrence in combination Balsams: . e.g : Tolubalsam , Benzoin . Oleo-gum resins: e.g : Asafoetida , Myrrh. Glycoresins ( Glucoresins ): e.g. Podophyllum , Jalap. Oleoresins: e.g. Ginger, Male Fern. Gum-resins: e.g. Ammoniacum . Basis of the constituents of the resin: Acid resins: e.g:Colophony ( abetic acid), Copaiba ( copalvic and oxy- copalvic acid). Ester resins: e.g : Benzoin and Storax . Benzoin Resin alcohols: e.g : Balsam of Peru with perureslonotannol . Resin phenols: e.g : The resinotannols are found in balsam of Peru as Peruresinotannol . Resenes : e.g : Asafoetida Taxaonomical classification: Coniferous Resins: e.g.Colophony,Sandarac . Berberidaceae Resins: e.g.: Podophyllum . Zygophyllaceae Resins: e.g.: Guaiacum

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Chemistry: The 3 important groups of compound in resins are the resin ester, resin acid and resenes . 1.Resin ester: There are 2 main kinds of resin alcohols in combination with these acids. Resinols : e.g : storesinol . Resinotannols: e.g: The resinotannol in Tolu balsam is called Toluresinotannol. 2. Resin acid: e.g: Myrrh. 3. Resenes : These are very stable neutral comp. They are insoluble in acid, alkali & do not form any salts. They are oxygenated compounds, but are not affected either by alkalies or acids. They are immune to oxidizing agents and variant climatic condition. e.g : Dracoresene (Dragon`s Blood).

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Identification tests: Dissolve 0.1 gm of powdered drug in 10 ml acetic anhydride in a dry test tube. Add a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid to the cold solution. Purple colour appears which quickly changes to dark violet on standing. Dissolve powdered drug in petroleum ether. To 5 ml of filtrate, add 10 ml of dilute solution of copper acetate. Petroleum ether layer develops green colour due to formation of abietic acid salt with copper . Isolation of Resins: By extraction with alcohol and precipitation with water. e.g. Jalap, Podophyllum , Ipomoea, Capsicum, Ginger etc. 2. By distillation for separation of oil: e.g. Copaiba, colophony etc. 3. By heating plant part. e.g. Guaiacum. 4. As plant exudates by incision. e.g. Myrrh, asafetida, balsams etc. 5. By collecting fossil resins. e.g. Copal, kauri etc

Crude drugs containing Tannins:

Name of Crude drug Biological Source Chemical Constituents Uses Podophyllum (Indian apple Podophyllum emodi , Family: Berberidaceae Podophyllotoxin , Picropodophyllin Flavones starch Anticaner agent Asafoetida (Devil's dong) Ferula foetida , Family: Umbelliferae , Ferolic acid, Asaresinol Pinene Stimulant,Carminative Ginger, ( Zingiber ) Zingiber afficinale , Family: Zingiberaceae Zingiberine , Curcumene , Phenyl propanoids Stimulant, Aromatic, Carminative Turmeric (Indian saffron) Curuma longa Family: Zingiberaceae Curcumine -I, II, III, Sugar, Camphene Condiment, Colouring agent Capsicum (Red pepper) Capsicum annum Family: solanacea Capsaicin, Casanthin , Carotin Protein, Ascorbic acid Stomachic, Stimulant Benzoin ( Loban ) Styrax benzoin Family: Styraceae Siaresinolic acid, Sumaresinolic acid Vanillin, Cinnamic acid Diuretic, Expectorant, Carminative Crude drugs containing Tannins

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Name of Crude drug Biological Source Chemical Constituents Uses Colophony (Rosina) Pinus elliotti , Family: Pinaceae Abietic acid Pimaric acid, Sapinic acid Stimulant, Diuretic Shellac (Lac) Lcifer lacca Family: Lacciferidae Order: Hemiptera Resin, shelloic acid aleuritic acid, kerrolic acid, butolic acid Sustained release medicaments Cannabis (Indian hemp) Cannabis Sativa, Family: Cannabinaceae Tetrahydro-cannabinaol , Cannabinaol Trigonelline Choline Antitussive , Antianxiety , Guggul Commiphora weightii Family: Burseraceae Gum resin, steroids , guggulostrones Antiinflammatory , Hypolipidemic

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Reference: Ashutosh Kar (Ed), “ Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology ” 2 nd edition, New Age International Ltd, New Delhi,2007, p.p : 307,312-3. C.K. Kokate (Ed),"Practical Pharamacognosy ”, 4 th edition, Vallabh Prakashan New Delhi-2004, p.p : 136,143,146. C.K.Kokate , A.P. Purohit , S.B.Gokhale ( Eds ), “ Pharmacognosy ”, 42 nd edition, Nirali Prakashan , Pune-2008, p.p : 11.100, 11.104-5, 11.107-8, 11.112-3, 11.126-7. E.Edwin.Jarald , Sheeja.Edwin.Jerald ( Eds ), “Textbook of Pharmacognosy ” 1 st edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors New Delhi-2007, p.p : 442-4,434, 440-1, 448-50. Egon Stahl, (Ed)“Thin Layer Chromatography”, A Laboratory Hand book, 2 nd edition, Springer international edition-2005, p.p : 247-8. Ernest J. Parry (Ed), “Gums and Resins, their occurrence, properties and uses”, Kessinger Publishing,2008, p.p : 11-2. F.M. Willich (Ed), “The Domestic Encyclopedia”, Volume-3,Amazon publication. Henry Trimen , Robert Bently ( Eds )," Medicinal Plants”, Indian edition, Asiatic Publishing House-2007, p.p:58. Indian Herbal Pharamacopoeia , revised new edition Indian Drug Association , Mumbai-2002, p.p : 335. K.M.Nadkarni (Ed),"Indian Materia Medica ”, 3rd edtion,Popular Prakashan,Bombay-2007, p.p:170,994,1309. Mohammed Ali (Ed), “Textbook of Pharmacognosy ” 2nd edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi-2005, p.p : 230-1. P.K. Mukherjee (Ed), “Quality control herbal drugs”, Eastern Publishers New-Delhi, 2001, p.p : 318-319. S.H.Ansari (Ed), “Essentials of Pharmacognosy ” 2nd edition, Birla Publications Pvt.Ltd . Delhi-2008, p.p:324-5-6. T.E. Wallis (Ed), “Textbook of Pharmacognosy ” 5th edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi- 2005, p.p :, 483, . Vinod D. Rangari (Ed), “ Pharamacognosy and Phytochemistry ” Vol-1, 2nd edition, Career Publications, Nashik-2008, p.p : 400,402,405-6,415-20, 425-9, 430-1 ,. W.C.Evans (Ed), “ Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy ” 1st edition, Saunders company, London-2003,p.p: 219. 285-6, 431.