cadmium poisoning

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CADMIUM POISONING:

CADMIUM POISONING

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION encountered in earth’s crust combined with chlorine (cadmium chloride), oxygen (cadmium oxide), or sulfur (cadmium sulfide) Exists as small particles in air, result of smelting, soldering or other high temp. industrial processes By-product of smelting of zinc, lead, copper ores Used mainly in metal plating, producing pigments, batteries, plastics and as a neutron absorbent in nuclear reactors

CADMIUM POISONING:

CADMIUM POISONING Caused by excessive exposure to cadmium no constructive purpose in the human body. extremely toxic even in low concentrations, and will bioaccumulate  in organisms and ecosystems

EXPOSURE SOURCES:

EXPOSURE SOURCES Tobacco smoke (a one pack a day smoker absorbs roughly 5 to 10 times the amount absorbed from the average daily diet) Tobacco smoke is an important source of cadmium exposure Cadmium a component of chuifong tokwan , sold illegally as a miracle herb in china. Low levels are found in grains, cereals, leafy vegetables, and other basic foodstuffs

BIOLOGICAL FATE:

BIOLOGICAL FATE no known beneficial function in the human body Is transported in the blood bound to metallothionein Greatest concentrations found in kidneys & liver Urinary excretion is slow Biologic half-life may be up to 30 yrs. Lungs absorb cadmium more efficiently than the stomach.

CAUSES OF HAZARD:

CAUSES OF HAZARD Affects lungs & kidneys 2 o effects on skeletal system Binds to sulfhydryl groups, displacing other metals from metalloenzymes, disrupting those enzymes Competes with calcium for binding sites on regulatory proteins Lipid peroxidation

EFFECTS OF POISONING:

EFFECTS OF POISONING Respiratory Effects Acute inhalation: Fever, chills Initial symptoms: flu-like symptoms Later: chest pain, cough, dysponea Bronchospasm and hemoptysis may occur Chronic inhalation: impairment of pulmonary function

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Renal Effects : May cause tubular and glomerular damage with resultant proteinuria Latency period of ~10 yrs Nephropathy Skeletal Effects: Bone lesions - severe chronic poisoning Pseudofractures Other effects of osteomalacia and osteoporosis increased urinary calcium and phosphorus losses

SYMPTOMS:

SYMPTOMS Food poisoning (ingestion) Bronchitis (inhalation) Interstitial pneumonitis (inhalation) Pulmonary edema (inhalation) MEDICAL CONDITIONS Osteoporosis Osteomalacia Hyperuricemia Hypophosphatemia Itai-itai disease Renal failure

DIAGNOSIS:

DIAGNOSIS Inhalation: Chest radiograph Chronic exposure: Renal tests: Serum electrolytes, BUN, serum and urinary creatinine, serum creatinine, cadmium in blood & urine, urinary protein Other tests – CBC & LFTs

DIRECT EVALUATION:

DIRECT EVALUATION 24 hour urine cadmium – reflects exposure over time Blood cadmium-estimated INDIRECT EVALUATION Urinary ß 2 -microglobulin – evaluate urine levels > 300  g/g creatinine Urinary RBP Urinary metallothionein (MT)

TREATMENT:

TREATMENT Render gastric lavage or make the infected person vomit within an hour if the person has consumed cadmium salts. Don't opt for chelation therapy as it proves toxic for the body when combined with cadmium. Smoking should be avoided and do check your house products for compounds which contain cadmium.

SMOKING IS INJURIOUS TO HEALTH…..STOP SMOKING!!!:

SMOKING IS INJURIOUS TO HEALTH…..STOP SMOKING!!!

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