Sun -Moon-and Earth

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Slide 1:

THE SUN, EARTH AND MOON

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Sun, earth and moon The sun , earth and moon form a system within our solar system

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THE SUN THE SUN

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THE SUN The sun is a great big ball of burning gases The sun is the star in the middle of our solar system

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Solar system SUN The sun is the closest star to our planet earth The sun is over 90 million miles away from earth

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THE SUN The diameter is the sun is about 865,000 miles. The sun makes up 99.9% of the solar systems mass

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THE SUN The sun is mostly made up of the gases hydrogen and helium

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot The photosphere is the layer where the sunlight we see comes from

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot The chromosphere has a red color because of the presence of hydrogen gas

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot The sunspots are dark spot on the photosphere.

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot The sunspots have cooler temperatures than other parts of the sun

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot Scientists can figure out the temperature of the sun from its color

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Layers of the sun Core Sunspot The core (center) of the earth is about 15 million˚C The surface of the sun is about 5,500˚C

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THE SUN SUN Scientists believe the sun is about 4.6 billion years old They believe the sun will burn for about 5 million more years and then die

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IMPORTANCE OF THE SUN Without the sun, there would be no life on earth Heat from the sun warms the earth

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IMPORTANCE OF THE SUN Plants use the sun’s energy to produce their own food by photosynthesis Animals eat the plants to get food they need to live and grow

Video: the sun:

Video: the sun

Video: sunspots:

Video: sunspots

Video: the sun’s death:

Video: the sun’s death

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EARTH The Blue Planet

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EARTH The Blue Planet The earth is about 1 million times smaller than the sun Earth is the only planet that has the right temperature, atmosphere and water for life to exist

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Earth is shaped like a sphere

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The water and the earth’s oceans form the hydrosphere

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Earth is shaped like a sphere The atmosphere refers to all the gases that surround the earth THE ATMOSPHERE

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The solid rock and soil that cover the earth’s surface is called the lithosphere lithosphere

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Layers of the earth

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The earth is made up of three main layers: crust, mantle and the core Layers of the earth

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The crust is the rocky outer layer of the earth . It is made up of a very thin layer of soil over rock CRUST

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Earth is shaped like a sphere crust The crust is the part of the earth we live on

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CRUST There are two types of crusts : continental crust and oceanic crust

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Continental crust The continental crust is the part of the crust above the oceans

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Continental crust

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oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the part of the crust at the bottom of the ocean

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CRUST Mantle MANTLE The MANTLE is a thick layer of hot solid rock found below the crust

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CRUST Mantle MANTLE The MANTLE is about 2900 km thick and is the thickest of all the earth’s layers The temperature of the mantle is about 2200 o C

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CRUST Mantle MANTLE The rocks in part of the mantle, flow very very slowly

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MANTLE The crust and mantle have areas of molten (melted) rock called magma Magma on the surface is called lava

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EARTH The Blue Planet CORE Core The core is the center of the earth. The core is made mostly of two metals —iron and nickel

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CORE The core has two layers—the inner core and outer core Outer core Inner core

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The outer core is made of liquid metals that flow slowly. It is about 2200 km thick OUTER CORE

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The inner core is an area of solid metal at the center of the earth INNER CORE This part is about 1,250 km thick

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INNER CORE The inner core is the earth’s hottest part. Its temperature is about 5,000 o C Inner Core

Video: layers of the earth:

Video: layers of the earth

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Quick Activity How is the earth like a peach? Crust Mantle Core

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Quick Activity Skin of the peach is the crust Meat of the peach is the mantle Pit of the peach is the core

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WHAT ARE EARTH’S LANDFORMS?

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LANDFORMS Landforms are natural shapes or features of Earth’s surface Earth has high places and low places, rough places and smooth places.

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LANDFORMS Some landforms are found both on dry land and on the ocean floor

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mountains Mountains form when the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust push upwards, fold or crack. Mountain Everest

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Tall mountains rise above the land on each continent The ocean floor also has mountains Mountain McKinley mountains

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hills Hills are raised parts of Earth’s surface that are smaller than mountains Hills usually have sloping sides and rounded tops

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A dune is a hill or a ridge made of sand. Dunes are shaped by the wind, and change all the time dunes

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plateau A plateau is a large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land

Canyons:

Canyons A canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river (moving water) The Grand Canyon in Arizona plateau

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valley A valley is a low place or land between two mountains

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valley These valleys are formed as the river wore away solid rock Rivers run through most valleys

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The Grand Canyon in Arizona A canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river (moving water) canyon

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Steep sides canyon Deep valley

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Plains are large flat areas of land. Plains are typically covered in tall or short grasses PLAINS

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An island is a piece of land surrounded by water ISLAND

Video: earth’s landforms:

Video: earth’s landforms

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HOW DO THE EARTH AND SUN INTERACT?

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The earth rotates or spins on its axis in a counterclockwise direction The earth completes one rotation in 24 hours (1 day) ROTATION

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Earth and the sun night Day The rotation of the earth on its axis causes day and night

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Soar system night Day The part of the earth facing the sun has daytime and the other side has night time ROTATION

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Soar system night Day As the earth rotates , the side that had daytime will now have nighttime and the side that had nighttime would now have daytime ROTATION

Video: day and night:

Video: day and night

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Solar system The earth is also tilted on its axis

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EARTH’S TILT Summer (more sunlight) Winter The hemisphere tiled towards the sun gets more sunlight (hotter) than the side tilted away from the sun(colder)

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The tilt of the earth on its axis as it moves around the sun, causes the seasons

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SUMMER

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FALL

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WINTER

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SPRING

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QUICK QUESTION At what point will it be summer in Mexico? Mexico

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The earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun at the same time Earth and the sun

Video: seasons of the year:

Video: seasons of the year

Video: rotations and revolutions:

Video: rotations and revolutions

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EARTH The Blue Planet Earth has one moon which revolves around it. The moon is earth’s natural satellite

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A natural satellite that orbits around planets MOON

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THE MOON A natural satellite that orbits around planets. + Natural : NOT made by human beings Satellite : An object that moves around a planet A natural satellite is an object NOT made by human beings that moves around a planet

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+ An artificial satellite is made by human beings and moves around a planet Hubble space Telescope

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PROPERTIES OF THE MOON

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The moon’s surface is covered with rocks and dust. There are plains, mountains and valleys. MOON

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Because the moon has NO ATMOSPHERE , it has a lot of craters on its surface MOON

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The moon has no air. MOON

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MOON The diameter of the moon is about ¼ the diameter of the earth

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MOON The moon has about 6 times less gravity than the earth

Video: properties of the moon:

Video: properties of the moon

Video: moon has no atmosphere:

Video: moon has no atmosphere

Video: craters:

Video: craters

Video: gravity:

Video: gravity

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RELATIONSHP BETWEEN THE EARTH AND MOON

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The moon is earth’s closest neighbor in space

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The moon rotates on its axis as it revolves around the earth MOON

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It takes the moon the same amount of time to rotate and revolves around the earth MOON

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It takes the moon 28 days (1 month) to rotate and revolve around the earth MOON

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Because of this, the same side of the moon always faces the earth

Video: moon’s movement:

Video: moon’s movement

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TIDES Earth and the moon

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Earth and the moon If you visit the beach, you’ll notice that at certain times, the water is higher on the beach but at other times, it is lower. TIDES

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What you are seeing are high tides and low tides High tides Low tides

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Tides are caused mostly by the pull of gravity between earth and its moon Hide Tide TIDES

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Each day, the beach will have 2 high tides and 2 low tides low Tide

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TIDES High tides High tides Low tides Low tides

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There are six hours between each tide TIDES

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The highest tide occurs when the earth, moon an sun are lined up TIDES

Video: tides:

Video: tides

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THE POSITION OF THE SUN, MOON AND EARTH Sun Earth Moon The sun, earth and moon form a system within our solar system

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THE LUNAR CYCLE 29½ DAYS

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THE MOON We are able to see the moon at night because it reflects the sun’s light

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From night to night, the shape of the moon looks different The changing views of the moon as it moves around the earth is called the moon’s phases

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The moon is not really changing its shape, what changes is the part of the moon that reflects light from the sun to earth LUNAR CYCLE

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LUNAR CYCLE

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The moon has four main phases as it moves around the sun—the new moon , first quarter , full moon and third quarter LUNAR CYCLE

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MOON PHASES Full Moon New Moon Third Quarter Moon First Quarter Moon

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NEW MOON Moon is directly between the Earth and the Sun. The side of the Moon facing the Earth is dark.

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Moon is a quarter of its way around its orbit. We see half the lighted half of the moon. FIRST QUARTER MOON

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FULL MOON During the full moon, the moon looks like a full circle

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FULL MOON Moon is on the opposite side of Earth from the Sun and the entire side of the moon facing Earth reflects sunlight back to Earth

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THIRD QUARTER MOON Moon is three-quarters of its way around its orbit. We see half the lighted part of the moon.

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Between the four main phases , there are other phases where the moon shape is waxing (getting bigger) or waning (getting smaller) LUNAR CYCLE

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WAXING Waxing means getting BIGGER

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WANING Waning means getting smaller

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Waxing Waning

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During these other phases, the moon’s shape could either appear as a crescent or a gibbous Gibbous moon Crescent moon

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WAXING Waxing Crescent Waxing Gibbous

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WANING Waning Crescent Waning Gibbous

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One complete lunar cycle takes about 29½ days

Video: phases of the moon:

Video: phases of the moon

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OREOS EXPERIMENT : PHASES OF THE MOON

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Earth Moon Use a Venn diagram to compare the earth to the moon

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RELATIVE SIZES OF THE SUN, EARTH AND MOON Sun Earth Moon Compared to the earth and moon, the sun has the largest size, then the earth. The moon has the smallest size

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An eclipse happens when one object in space casts a shadow on another object in space

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In a solar eclipse , the moon casts a shadow on Earth

Video: solar eclipse:

Video: solar eclipse

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In a lunar eclipse , the earth casts a shadow on the moon

Video: lunar eclipse:

Video: lunar eclipse

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Identify the planet labeled M in the picture. Explain your answer M Question 1

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Partially hidden from view In the shadow of the sun’s corona Cooler than the rest of the sun’s surface Made of the dark-colored minerals Question 2 Sunspots appear to be darker than the rest of the sun’s surface because they are –