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UTILIZATION OF WILD RELATIVES FOR YIELD AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN SOYBEAN PRESENTATION ON- BY- Mr . Rakesh Choudhary M.S C .( agri ) Dept. of genetics and plant breeding

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Soybean- a miracle crop 40% protein 20% oil Soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr .) 2n = 2x = 40 Origin- China

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Severe infection of fungi &viruses Poor Quality Seed Imbalanced nutrition Rainfed farming Causes of low productivity in soybean Pest infestation Variety Potential

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TAXONOMY AND SPECIES Glycine Soja The subgenus Glycine includes 16 wild perennial species. The subgenus Soja includes two species viz. the cultivated type, G. max (L.) Merr, and its annual wild counterpart, G. soja Sieb and Zucc. Progenitors : G. usuriensis (G. soja) G. tomentella G. tabacina G. gracilis Glycine max is originated from G. soja. & Probable ancestor of G. soja are G.tabacina and/or G. tomentella .

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Kingdom: Plantae Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae Genus: Glycine Species: G. max

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Species Code 2n Genome Distribution SUBGENUS Glycine G. albicans Tind , and Craven ALB 40 II Australia G. arena Ha Tind . ARE 40 HH Australia G. argyrea Tind . ARG 40 A 2 A Z Australia G. canescens F.J. Herm. CAN 40 AA Australia G, clandestina Wendl. CLA 40 A 1 A 1 Australia G. curvata Tind . CUR 40 C 1 C 1 Australia G. cyrtoloba Tind . CYR 40 CC G.falcata Benth FAL 40 FF Australia G. hirticaulis Tind . and Craven KIR 40 H 1 H 1 Australia HIR 80 — Australia G. lactovirens Tind . and Craven LAC 40 Australia G. latifolia ( Benth .) Newell & Hymowitz LAT 40 B 1 B 1 Australia

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G. latrobeana ( Meissn .) Benth LTR 40 A 3 A 3 Australia G. microphylla (Benth.) Tind. MIC 40 BB Australia G. pindanica Tind . and Craven PIN 40 H 2 H 2 Australia G. tabacina ( Labill .) Benth TAB 40 B 2 B 2 Australia G. tomentella Hayata TOM 38 EE Australia 40 DD Australia, Papua New Guinea SUBGENUS soja ( Moench ) F. J. HERM. G. soja Sieb . and Zucc . SOJ 40 GG China, Russia, Taiwan G. max (L.) Merr . MAX 40 GG Cultigen (Soybean)

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G. soja - a wild progenitor of the cultivated soybean Also designated as G. formosana Resistant to yellow mosaic Plant prostrate, twiner Leaflets are narrowly lanceolate , ovate, or oblong, elliptic Flowers are purple Seeds are small than cultivated species (0.3 g as compared to 12 g/100 seeds of normal cultivated spp.) Pods are prone to shattering Probable ancestor are G.tabacina and/or G. tomentella

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G. max- cultivated soybean Annual plant with erect growth habit , sparsly branched and often bush type Leaflets are broadly ovate, oval to elliptic Flowers are white to purple G .max is infertile with G. soja One to three seeds per pod are usually ovoid to spherical Seed coat ranges olive green and brown to reddish black Seed weight 8-22 g/ 100 seeds G. gracilis - Weedy form of soybean Crossable with cultivated and wild soybean

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BREEDING ACHIEVEMENTS HIGH YIELDING SOYBEAN VARIETIES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT (protein quality, and antrinutritional factors) DEVELOPMENT OF LODGING RESISTANT DETERMINATE / DWARF SOYBEANS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO FOLIAR DISEASES DEVELOPMENT OF SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE RESISTANCE TRANSGENIC SOYBEAN (Round Up soybean)

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NOTE- There are very less wild introgressions present in the leading varieties of soybean cultivated in the United States. However, interesting traits have been identified in wild species that are held in seed banks, including many disease-resistance traits, and traits that confer tolerance to herbicides and salinity, and increased protein levels. Some of this new variation is being introduced through interspecific hybridization. It is possible that more-advanced soybean varieties, into which exotic genes have been introduced, are being developed in breeding companies, which usually keep such information confidential.

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SEMI DWARF SOYBEAN The first semidwarf soybean cultivar 'Elf’ was released in 1977 in USA. It was about 50% shorter than normal indeterminate varieties and was highly resistant to lodging. The newer, higher-yielding, Phytophthora tolerant semi-dwarf cultivars, 'Pixie', 'Sprite' and 'Hobbit' became available to U.S. farmers in 1984.

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RESISTANCE TO FOLIAR DISEASES BACTERIAL PUSTULES- Xanthomomas campestris pv. Phaseoli R esistance governed by - Single major recessive gene Resistance present in cultivar- Clement Non Shattering (CNS) R esistance transferred to varieties – In Indian varieties- Alankar, Pusa-20 , PS-564, PK-327, PK-416, Gaurav ,Durga In US varieties- Lee, Clarke 63,Wayne, Cumberland, Williams RUST- Phakopsora pachyrhizi Resistant germplasm lines in INDIA- PI200465, 200466,200477, 200490,200492 and PI224268

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BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS(BYMV)- BYMV + Soybean Mosaic Virus(SMV)= “Soybean Mosaic” symptom Resistance donors = PI171443(UPSM 534) and an accession of G. formosana (=G. soja ) Resistance governed by- two recessive gene pairs in PI171443 (UPSM 534) - one dominant gene in G. formosana Resistant lines in INDIA- Source of Gene Resistant Lines PI171443(UPSM 534) PK 416 & Pant Soybean 564 G. formosana PK 515

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RESISTANCE TO INSECT PESTS BIHAR HAIRY CATERPILLAR- Diacrisia obliqua G. soja , has been found to be free from infestation of this insect provided an alternative variety is available to the insect . During rainy season 1988 the infestation of this defoliator was very severe at Pantnagar. However, G. soja planted in the hybridization block remained completely free from this insect, while all around there was complete defoliation in other entries. Not only that G. soja was free from this insect, but a breeding line PK-315 , having G. soja in its parentage was only partially damaged. Similarly, an F 2 of a cross, Glycine soja x PK 472 had a few narrow leaf plants showing negligible infestation. Therefore, this wild soybean can be used as a donor of resistance (Non Preference type) to Bihar Hairy Caterpillar. Resistance is governed by ‘single dominant gene’.

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Soybean cyst nematode resistance has been successfully transferred from wild perennial soybean, Glycine tomentella Hayata . , but cultivars are still in an experimental stage. RESISTANCE TO SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE Heterodera gycines

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BREEDING SOYBEAN FOR QUALITY INCREASED PROTEIN QUANTITY – Source Of High Protein - G. soja, ( containing more than 45% protein) A major difficulty in selection for increased protein in most soybean breeding populations has been the existence of negative genetic correlations between percentage protein and two other economically important traits viz. yield and percentage oil. In such situations, recurrent restricted index selection could be used with advantage to hold protein constant while increasing yield of oil. Soybean protein lacks Methionine. No wild relative show significant result for Methionine content.

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KUNITZ TRYPSIN INHIBITOR- Four electrophoretic forms of soybean trypsin inhibitor-A2 (SBTI-A2) have been discovered. Three of the forms, designated as Ti a , Ti b , and Ti c are electrophoretically distinguishable from one another by their different Rf values in a 10% polyacrylamide gel system. The three forms are controlled by a codominant multiple allelic system at a single locus. The fourth form i.e., the lack of protein band is inherited as a recessive allele, designated as ti . Soybeans without the SBTI-A2 band have about 50% less trypsin inhibitor activity per gram of protein than soybeans containing the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Preliminary data suggest that substitution of the Ti a allele with the ti allele does not markedly affect yield and other traits.

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ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS - Other Antinutritional Factors - Hemagglutinins, Goitrogens and Antivitamins and all are heat labile. Breeding cultivars without Lipoxygenase appears a possibility. The use of Glycine soja would appear to be helpful in reducing lipoxygenase activity in soybeans .