22-12-12

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AUSTRALIAN ARCHITECTURE

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AUSTRALIAN ARCHITECTURE SUBMITTED BY: AADYA AGRAWAL AREEBA KHAN ARSHAD JAMAL M.ARCH 1 ST SEM. JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA 1 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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AUSTRALIA Officially the Commonwealth of Australia , is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. 2 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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3 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Famous architectural styles are found in lower part i.e . Southern territory Western Australia & Eastern side.

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HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA 4 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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ARCHITECTURE OF AUSTRALIA Three main divisions have been identified. These are colonial, historicism and contemporary. Australian architecture hasn't developed any new order or ideas to world architecture. The unique climate of Australia adapted British style in early phase and 20th-century trends reflected the increasing influence of American urban designs. 5

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ARCHITECTURE OF AUSTRALIA 6 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE In the period before European settlement of Australia in 1788, Tents and wattle and daub huts were built. As a British colony, most of the colonialists were from England the first buildings reflected English ideas. Georgian architecture is seen in early government buildings and the homes of the wealthy. Terrace houses, Surry Hills, New South Wales Juniper Hall, New South Wales

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7 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE VICTORION PERIOD (1840-1880) 15 styles all prefaced by "Victorian": Georgian, Regency, Egyptian, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Mannerist, Second Empire, Italianate, Romanesque, Academic Gothic, Free Gothic, Tudor, Rustic Gothic, Carpenter Gothic. Parliament House, Melbourne representing neoclassical style Former Baptist Church House. Victoria represents neoclassical Court house, New South Wales represents Italianate

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8 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE FEDERATION PERIOD (1880-1915) 12 styles, each style name prefaced by "Federation": Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Anglo-Dutch, Romanesque, Gothic, Carpenter Gothic, Warehouse, Queen Anne, Free Style, Arts and Crafts, Bungalow Sydney Hospital, Sydney representing academic classical style Salvation army, Brisbane, Queensland Bairnsdale court house, Victoria represents romanseque Artist society, Melbourne represents Arts & crafts style

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9 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE INTER-WAR PERIOD (1915-1940) 16 styles, each style name prefaced by "Inter-War": Georgian Revival, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Beaux-Arts, Stripped Classical, Commercial Palazzo, Mediterranean, Spanish Mission, Chicagoesque, Functionalist & Modern, Art-Deco, Skyscraper Gothic, Romanesque, Interwar Gothic, Old English, California Bungalow Australian war memorial, Canberra representing academic Art Deco style Designed by John Crust & Emile Soderston built in Australia’s capital ANZACWarMemorial, Sydney Represents Art Deco Designed by Bruce Dellit Former police headquarters, Melbourne represents functionailst & Modern style, an example of interwar brick moderne heavily influenced by North American skyscrapers

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10 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE POST-WAR PERIOD (1940-1960) 5 styles, each style name prefaced by "Post-War": Ecclesiastical, International, Modern St Marys Anglican Church, South Perth, Western Australia represents Ecclesiastical style ICI House. East Melbourne, Victoria; Completed 1958. Early curtain wall glass buildings and tallest in Australia when completed.

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11 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE MODERN PERIOD (1960-present) 14 styles, each style name prefaced by "Late Twentieth Century": Stripped Classical, Ecclesiastical, International, Organic, Brutalist, Structuralist, Late Modern, Post Modern, Immigrants' Nostalgic Australia Square, Sydney. Completed 1967. An iconic office building. Parliament House is the meeting facility of the Parliament of Australia located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. The building was designed by Romaldo Giurgola and opened on 9 May 1988 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia

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12 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE CANBERRA DESIGN PLANNING Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by the Chicago architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913. The Parliamentary Triangle was a significant feature of Walter Burley Griffin’s plan for Canberra. The apices of the triangle are Parliament House, the seat of government; the Defence Head Quarters at Russell; and City Hill, representing the civilian part of Canberra.

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13 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE The city's design was heavily influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the "bush capital“. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" (parks), containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture. Garden city principles greatly influenced the design of colonial and post-colonial capitals during the early part of the 20th century, like NEW DELHI, CANBERRA, QUEZON (Philippines).

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Sydney Opera House (1957 - 1973 ) is a masterpiece of late modern architecture . It is a great architectural work of the 20th century that brings together multiple strands of creativity and innovation in both architectural form and structural design Jørn Utzon gave Australia a challenging , graceful piece of urban sculpture. It opened the way for the immensely complex geometries of some modern architecture. SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE, SYDNEY (STRUCTURALISM & EXPRESSIONISM STYLE ) 14 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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15 Sydney Opera House is a modern expressionist design. The distinctive roof comprises sets of interlocking vaulted ‘shells’, each one composed of sections of an hemisphere of the same radius, forming the roofs of the structure, set on a monumental podium. In its short lifetime, Sydney Opera House has earned a reputation as a world-class performing arts center and has become a symbol of both Sydney and the Australian nation. 15 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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FEDERATION SQUARE, MELBOURNE (DECONSTRUCTIVISM STYLE) 21 ST CENTURY Opened in 2002, it is sometimes considered to be one of the world's ugliest buildings or tourist attractions of Melbourne. 16 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE It was designed by Melbourne based Firm LAB ARCHITECTURE.

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QUEENSLAND GALLERY OF MODERN ART (MODERN STYLE) The Queensland Gallery of Modern Art (also known as GOMA ) is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre at the South Bank area of South Brisbane. It was opened on 2 nd December 2006 and designed by Kerry and Lindsay Clare working together in Sydney based company- ARCHITECTUS The Gallery was inspired by a spiralling seashell. The materials used were Glass, Concrete, Tallow wood. 17 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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18 Brisbane Square is a high-rise building in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The building has 38 floors and rises to 151 metres. The building's main use is for office space, the lower floors leased to retailers, with a 350-space car park below the building. Completed 2006 Address 266 George Street , Brisbane Height Roof 151m Spire None Floors 38 Developer ABN AMRO Companies Denton Corker Marshall Pty. Ltd. Baulderstone Hornibrook Pty. Ltd. Qantec McWilliam consulting engineers BRISBANE SQUARE 18 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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CENTRAL PARK, SYDNEY (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) The first stage of the redevelopment is a new tower called One Central Park designed by Jean Nouvel featuring "vertical gardens" by Patrick Blanc. 19 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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20 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Natural resources Australia is one of the world's rich, developed countries. It is also one of the world's most industrialized countries. The economy of Australia is one of the largest capitalist economies in the world The Australian economy is dominated by Mining sector Agriculture sector Coal is used at very rapid speed and it is causing pollution and drastic climate change.

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Impact on climate 21 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Australia has the developed world's highest per capita carbon dioxide emissions: Tons of CO2 per year per capita (as of 2005, without land-use changes): Australia: 26.9 United States: 23.5 Canada 22.6 United Kingdom: 10.6

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Prof. Steffen (Climate commission) says to look no further than the now. While we wonder what the effects of climate change will be in the future, especially in Australia, we are overlooking the current effects of climate change. According to CSIRO, climate change projections for South Australia include extreme heat and droughts , with conditions expected to cause shifts in the conditions affecting food production, biodiversity, bushfire severity, infrastructure damage and coastal erosion. The average temperature in South Australia has already risen 0.96 degrees Celsius, higher than both the Australian and global averages. This increased heat is already causing infrastructure issues such as heat expansion on train tracks, the warping of buildings and the erosion of coasts, which in turn puts waterside developments at serious risk. 22 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE CONCLUSION

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REFERENCES 23 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE http://bldgblog.blogspot.in/2007/01/architecture-and-climate-change.html www.google.com.au www.wikipedia.org http://designbuildsource.com.au/schedule-158-climate-change-affecting-built-environment

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