Effect of plant nutrition in insect pest management

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Nutrition concerns the chemicals required by organism for its growth, tissue maintenance, reproduction and necessary to maintain these functions. It may determine resistance or susceptibility to pests. Nitrogen has positive effects on individual insect performance, probably due to deposition-induced improvements in host plant chemistry. These improvements include increased nitrogen and decreased carbon-based defensive compound concentrations. Potassium provides high resistance against insect– pests. High levels of potassium enhance secondary compound metabolism, reduce carbohydrate accumulation and plant damage from insect pests. Phosphorus also decreases the host suitability to various insect-pests. Secondary macronutrients and micronutrients like calcium, zinc and sulphur also reduce the pest populations. Among mineral elements, silicon is involved in plant resistance against insect pest damage. The indirect effects of fertilization practices acting through changes in the nutrient composition of the crop have been reported to influence plant resistance to many insect pests. The need for more healthful foods is stimulating the development of techniques to increase plant resistance to phytophagous insects.

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2737 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2018 74: 2737-2742 E-ISSN: 2278-4136 P-ISSN: 2349-8234 JPP 2018 74: 2737-2742 Received: 25-05-2018 Accepted: 30-06-2018 Kiran Bala Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur Himachal Pradesh India AK Sood Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur Himachal Pradesh India Vinay Singh Pathania Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur Himachal Pradesh India Sudeshna Thakur Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur Himachal Pradesh India Correspondence Kiran Bala Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur Himachal Pradesh India Effect of plant nutrition in insect pest management: A review Kiran Bala AK Sood Vinay Singh Pathania and Sudeshna Thakur Abstract Nutrition concerns the chemicals required by organism for its growth tissue maintenance reproduction and necessary to maintain these functions. It may determine resistance or susceptibility to pests. Among several plant nutrients only 17 are essential for proper growth and development of plants and each nutrient plays important role in their growth. These nutrients are required by insects for their growth tissue maintenance reproduction and energy. They fulfill their requirements through feeding on plants. Nitrogen has positive effects on individual insect performance probably due to deposition-induced improvements in host plant chemistry. These improvements include increased nitrogen and decreased carbon-based defensive compound concentrations. Potassium provides high resistance against insect– pests. High levels of potassium enhance secondary compound metabolism reduce carbohydrate accumulation and plant damage from insect pests. Phosphorus also decreases the host suitability to various insect-pests. Secondary macronutrients and micronutrients like calcium zinc and sulphur also reduce the pest populations. Among mineral elements silicon is involved in plant resistance against insect pest damage. The indirect effects of fertilization practices acting through changes in the nutrient composition of the crop have been reported to influence plant resistance to many insect pests. The need for more healthful foods is stimulating the development of techniques to increase plant resistance to phytophagous insects. Keywords: management plant nutrition insect pest tissue maintenance 1. Introduction Terrestrial eukaryotic biodiversity is dominated by plants and the animals that eat them the majority of which are insects Simpson et al. 2015 23 . Insect-pests are threat to agricultural productivity. They affect the crop yield quality and aesthetic value. Nutritional quality of plant tissue is one of the main characteristics of host plant selection by phytophagous insects Bernays and Chapman 1994 6 . It has a substantial impact on the predisposition of plants to insect-pests. Unlike in human nutrition where the effect of nutrition on “health” has gained considerable importance the implementation of “healthy” nutrition to improve resistance and tolerance of plants lags its potential. Plant nutrition is a study that deals with plants’ need for certain chemical elements including their specific and interactive effects on all aspects of plant growth and development their availability absorption transport and utilization. These chemical elements are referred to as plant nutrients. A plant nutrient is a chemical element that is essential for plant growth and reproduction. Essential element is a term often used to identify a plant nutrient. Plant nutrients can be classified on the basis of mineral composition nutrients concentration and on the basis of their physiological functions. Besides carbon hydrogen and oxygen which plants obtain from carbon dioxide and water 14 nutrients are recognized as essential viz. primary macronutrients nitrogen phosphorus and potassium secondary macronutrients calcium magnesium and sulphur and micronutrients iron manganese zinc copper boron molybdenum chlorine and nickel for growth of plants. The relative availability of various nutrients affects the growth and fitness of herbivores whose biomass generally contains much greater concentrations of elements as compared to plants Boswell et al. 2008 7 . Qualitative nutritional requirements of insects include carbohydrates proteins amino acids fatty acids minerals and vitamins. Insects get their nutrients from plants through feeding. 2. Insect Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance growth reproduction health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake absorption assimilation biosynthesis catabolism and excretion.

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2738 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Fatty acids Vitamins Minerals Herbivores Insects Nutrient chain from plants to herbivores 3. Nutritional Requirements of Insects: Carbohydrates Dietary carbohydrates are used principally as sources of energy for fat and glycogen synthesis. Sugars constitute the sole food of certain adult insects play a role in feeding behavior and in orientation of certain phytophagous insects on the host plants Proteins and amino acid Enzymes morphogenesis Eg: Tyrosine Cuticular sclerotization tryptophan visual screening pigment Lipids Fatty acids phospholipids and sterols are the components of cell wall. Diacylglycerides triacylglycerides and derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids important in reproduction. Acetyl choline and phosphatidyl cholines are the phospholipids. Insects get sterols by feeding on the plant tissue cholesterol Vitamins Water soluble vitamins beta carotene vitamin E biotin folic acid etc. Lack of Vitamin C results in abortive ecdysis and death. Minerals Important in hardening the cuticle of mandibles in many insects Eg: Fe Zn Mn etc. 4. Influence of nutrients on different pest groups Table 4.1 Effects of Nitrogen on various aphid spp. Hemiptera Insect Spp. Effects References Aphids Aphis gossypii Lowest mean generation time highest finite rate of increase when fed on chrysanthemum fertilized at a 150 fertilizer level. Rostami et al. 2011 Macrosiphum euphorbiae  Positive relationship of fecundity and survival with increase concentration of Nitrogen.  Aphid performance was significantly lower on unfertilised plants with low Nitrogen content suggesting a positive effect of nitrogen. Johanna et al. 2009 Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum  Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilization but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied.  Aphids reared in the glasshouse lived longer than those reared in the field. Gash 2012 Myzus persicae  Aphid population increased over time at the three intermediate N levels. It remained stable at the lowest N level and decreased at the highest N level. Four weeks after the start of infestation the number of aphids displayed a parabolic response to N level. Sauge et al. 2010 Effect of nitrogen on population growth parameters of insects: Growth rate and Potential fecundity Developmental time and Population density Intrinsic rate of increase and Life expectancy Finite rate of increase and Mean generation time Nitrogen is the major nutrient required by insects and in most cases the main limiting factor for optimal growth of insects Rostami et al. 2012 19 . Application of nitrogen fertilizer normally increases herbivore feeding preference food consumption survival growth reproduction and population density except in few instances where nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performance. Influence of Nitrogen on different insects pests groups: Hemiptera Thysanoptera Lepidoptera Diptera

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2739 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Table 4.2: Effects of Nitrogen on Thysanoptera Lepidoptera and Coleoptera Thysanoptera Insect Species Effects References Thrips Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Population increased on hosts receiving higher rates of nitrogen fertilization. Higher fertilization rates produced flowers that had higher nitrogen content as well as variations in amino-acid profiles during the period of peak thrips populations. Abundance of adult females were highly correlated to flower concentrations of phenylalanine during population peaks. Chen et al. 2004 Lepidoptera Insect Spp. Effects References Borers and leaf folders Scripophaga incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Highest incidence was recoreded in Punjab Bas-2 variety of rice with an increase in nitrogen level. Incidence of leaf folder and stemborer was increased with an increase in nitrogen level Randhawa et al. 2013 Moths Diamond back moth Plutella xylostella The feeding preference on cabbage plant is increased due to excessive dose of nitrogen Altieri and Nicholas 2003 Coleoptera Insect Spp. Effects References Beetle Lochmaea suturalis Destabilizing effect of nitrogen deposition on plant–herbivore interactions is the cause of a recent increase in frequency of periodic outbreaks. Brunsting et al. 1982 Table 4.3: Effects of Nitrogen on Arachnida Arachnida Nutrients Mite species Crop Numerical response of insects Nitrogen Panonychus ulmi Apple Increase Nitrogen Tetranychus telarius Apple Increase Nitrogen Tetranychus telarius Beans Increase Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Two-spotted spider mite Beans/peaches Increase Why nitrogen increases the population of insects Profuse plant growth due to high nitrogen fertilizer retards spray coverage. Excessive dose of nitrogen fertilizer produce lush green plants which will attract pest population. Plants given nitrogen fertilizer increases plant dry weight leaf area leaf chlorophyll content and grain yield. Increase in nitrogen increases the biosynthesis or accumulation of proteins free amino acid and sugars that might have attracted insects Eg: whitefly for feeding in okra. It was found that application of only nitrogen or higher dosage of nitrogen increased the aphid population while application of phosphorus and potash with or without combination of nitrogen reduced the population build up. However application of 120 kgha-1 nitrogen increased the yield despite higher population. Jauset et al. 1998 15 reported that the nitrogen content of plants was directly related to the level of nitrogen fertilization and that it affected among and within plant distribution of Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults on tomato Lycopersicon esculentum. Whitefly females aggregated and laid more eggs on leaves and on plants with the highest nitrogen and water content. It is believed that increased nitrogen in the plant nutrition can change the plant quality and also reduce the plant’s resistance against aphids in cotton and similarly to this Cisneros and Godfrey 1999 12 . Management through Nitrogen Less dose of Nitrogen increase the Chlorogenic acid which acts as a resistance factor in chrysanthemum plants e.g.- phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid present in higher amount in thrips-resistant chrysanthemums. Proper application of nitrogen fertilizers would be beneficial to manage insect herbivores such as cotton aphid. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution. Cotton aphid population density was significantly affected by interaction of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers in field experiments of two years these results indicated that cotton aphid population density at seedling stage was suppressed by potassium fertilizer and the combination of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers in proper rate K:N 1:0.9 or 1:1.2 kg/ha. Suggesting that proper application of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling insect herbivores such as cotton aphid and plant growth at seedling stage of Bt-cotton field in Central China Ai TC et al. 2011 3 . Positive correlation between population growth rate of potato green peach aphid Myzus persicae and concentrations of free amino acids in leaves of plants that received the nitrogen fertilization was rooted by Jansson and Smilowitz 1986 14 . 5. Influence of phosphorus on insects: Hemiptera Thysanoptera Phytophagous insects have a much higher nitrogen and phosphorus content than their host plants an elemental mismatch that places inherent constraints on meeting nutritional requirements Huberty and Robert 2006 13 . Phosphorus application with or without combination of nitrogen reduced the population build up of mustard aphid. Population decreased significantly with increase in rate of application. At 40 and 60 kg/ha grain yields were significantly higher than at the lower rates of application. High phosphorus application increased population growth of Brown planthopper. Bug densities decreased significantly with increase in rate of application. A strong trend towards increased population growth resulting from increased foliar

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2740 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Phosphorus concentration. Increase in adults females number due to luxurious growth of plant due to Phosphorus. Phosphorus had a positive effect on several parameters of aphid performance. 5.1 Effect of Phosphorus on different insects Hosts Herbivore species Factor Response Mustard Lipaphis erysimi Population Decrease Cowpea Clavigralla sp. Population Decrease Cotton Bemisia tabaci Incidence Decrease Cotton Empoasca sp. Population Increase Busy Lizzy Frankliniella occidentalis Population Female Adults Increase Management through Phosphorus Phosphorus decreases the host suitability of potato plants against various insect-pests by changing secondary metaboiltes such as phenolics and terpenes and accumulation of phenolics tannin lignin acts as barrier having deterring antifeedent or directly toxicinsecticidal effects on herbivores Facknath and Lalljee 2005 10 . Phenolics interfere with digestion slow growth block enzyme activity and cell division. Terpenes like monoterpenes sesquiterpenes terpene polymers interefere with neural transmission block phosphorylation and gum up insects. Excessive dietary P 1 reduced growth and survival of some insects. Eg.- Schistocerca Americana. Table 6.1: Influence of potassium on different aphids sp. Host plant Herbivore species Factor Response Mustard Mustard aphid Lipaphis eryisimi Population Decrease Canola Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Population Decrease Wheat Green bug Schizaphis graminum Population Decrease Pea Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Number of nymphs/plant Decrease Cotton Cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Population Decrease 6. Effect of potassium in different pest groups:  Hemiptera  Thysanoptera  Lepidoptera  Diptera  Arachnida Most indications 89 concern five pest groups which are in order of importance Hemiptera Lepidoptera Arachnida Coleoptera and Thysanoptera. The beneficial effect of potassium largely predominates in the case of plant hoppers and Coleoptera while for Lepidoptera and mites numbers of indications of a depression or stimulation are similar. Potassium provides high resistance against insect–pests. High levels of potassium enhance secondary compound metabolism reduce carbohydrate accumulation and plant damage from insect pests. A significant interaction between nitrogen and potassium levels was found in which the greatest increases of shoot and root dry matter with increasing N levels were found at the highest potassium level. High potassium application decreased population build up and dry weight of Brown plant hopper Rashid et al. 2013 18 . Incorporating potassium silicate into nutrient solutions did not confer resistance to pest populations developing on poinsettia leaves and applications of the silicon fertilizer failed to enhance the plant growth against Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The percent surviving larvae their body weight and population of sugarcane borer Chilo suppressalis rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis decreased due to high potassium application. Management through potassium High dose of potassium decreases the nitrogen uptake. It adversely affects the biology and behavior of insects. Increase in potassium dose decreases intake and assimilation of food. Excessive amount of potassium causes quantitative changes in nutrients and allelochemicals. They strongly influence the chemical environment of the plant and play an important role in suppressing the population. High accumulation of potassium by crops during optimal growing conditions may be considered as an “insurance strategy” to enable the plant to better survive under sudden environmental stress. 7. Influence of secondary macronutrients and micronutrients Besides primary macronutrients some secondary macronutrients and micronutrients also influence the pest population. Secondary macronutrients and micronutrients like Calcium Zinc and Sulphur also reduce the pest populations. Among mineral element silicon is involved in plant resistance against insect pest damage. High silica content in leaves of cotton plant reduces the spiny bollworm Earias insulana and Helicoverpa armigera infestation. The first report on Silicon increased plant resistance to an insect pest was associated with the rice stem borer Sasamoto 1953. Increase in number of applications of calcium silicate reduced thrips population due to mortality of nymphs in tomato. Silicon involved in plant resistance against insect pest damage via two major defense mechanisms:  Physical defense  Induced biochemical defense It is deposited as Opaline phytoliths increasing hardiness and abrasiveness of tissues. It creates feeding deterrent which reduce the palatability and leaves no pesticide residue in food or the environment. It easily integrated with other pest management practices. It has prophylactic against a wide range of insect feeding guilds including lepidopteran borers folivores phloem feeding insects and other plant feeders. Keeping et al. 2012 16 observed the effect of high silicon content on borers of sugarcane: Table 7.1: Effect of silicon on Lepidoptera Herbivores Species Host Factor Response Shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Sugarcane larval damage Decrease Stalk borer Eldana saccharina Sugarcane larval damage Decrease Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis Sugarcane larval damage Decrease Rice stem borer Chilo simplex Paddy larval damage Decrease

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2741 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Management through secondary macronutrients and micronutrients Production of antibiosis effects like toxic metabolites alkaloids glucosides and by inducing sufficiency of essential nutrients. Eg: Zinc and Iron content produces antibiosis effect in paddy against Brown plant hopper. With increase in Zinc and sulphur content the brown plant hopper population decreased. Application of silicon in crops provides a variable component of integrated management of insect pests and diseases because it leaves no pesticide residue in food or environment and it can be easily integrated with other pest management practices. Almeida et al. 2009 4 observed that increase in number of applications of calcium silicate reduced population thrips due to mortality of nymphs in tomato. Silicon reduced borer survival and percentage stalk length bored Keeping et al 2012 16 . Ma and Takahashi 2002 17 reported that high mortality of larvae at higher rates of silica gel and high accumulation of silicon in the rice stems. Table 7.2: Effect of silica gel in rice stems 8. Management through fertilizers The indirect effects of fertilization practices acting through changes in the nutrient composition of the crop have been reported to influence plant resistance to many insect pests. Excessive and/or inappropriate use of inorganic fertilizers can cause nutrient imbalances and lower pest resistance Rashid et al. 2016 18 . Proper fertilization is necessary to give the plants a certain level of resistance against pests. Primary pest defense of plants like physical and biochemical properties can be enhanced by balanced fertilization with plant nutrients. It is concluded that when soil amendments such as poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers are applied to restore or increase fertility pest control measures such as the use of chemical insecticides and other pest management options should be put in place to mitigate the effects of infestation of insect pests on crop productivity. Rising levels of available nutrients have altered the global nutrient cycle substantially with consequential changes in terrestrial and aquatic systems Aber et al. 2003 1 . Chatterjee et al. 2013 8 observed that the use of inorganic fertilizers with FYM vermicompost and biofertilizers reduces the whitefly incidence in tomato. Table 8.1: Effect of inorganic fertilizers with FYM vermicompost and biofertilizers 9. Conclusion Unlike in human nutrition where its effect on “health” has gained considerable importance the implementation of “healthy” nutrition to improve resistance and tolerance of plants lags its potential. In modern agriculture the most critical problem for increasing yield and developing sustainable agriculture is sufficient fertilizers supply and successful crop protection against herbivores. Herbivores are sensitive to alternation in host plant nutrition. Nutrient enrichment from agricultural and atmospheric sources has the potential to alter plant–insect interactions via changes in plant growth and defense. Optimized management of chemical fertilizers will be essential for achieving sustainability of intensive farming. If integrated crop production is to be

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2742 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry extensively used in the future a greater understanding of relationships among soil characteristics fertilization practices plant nutrient content and the ability of pests to reduce yield or crop quality will be required. The need for more healthful foods is stimulating the development of techniques to increase plant resistance to phytophagous insects. 10. References 1. Aber JD Goodlae CL Ollinger SV Smith ML Mahill AH Martin ME et al. Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forest Bioscience. 2003 53:375-389. 2. Ahmed S Habibullah SS Ali CM. Effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on sucking insect pests of cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Journal of Agricultural Research. 2007 451:43-48. 3. Ai TC Liu ZY Li CR Luo P Zhu JQ. Impact of fertilization on cotton aphid population in Bt. cotton production system. Ecological Complexity. 2011 8:9-14 4. Almeida GD Pratissoli D Zanuncio JC Vicenthi VB Holtz AM Serrao JE. Calcium silicate and organic mineral fertilizer increase the resistance of tomato plants to Frankliniella schultzei. Phytoparasitica. 2009 37:225- 230. 5. Altieri MA Nicholls CI. Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research. 2003 72:203-211. 6. Bernays EA Chapman RF. Host-Plant Selection by Phytophagous Insects. New York: Chapman Hall. 1994 95-165. 7. Boswell AM Provin T Behmer ST. The relationship between body mass and elemental composition in nymphs of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Journal of Orthoptera Research. 2008 17:307-313. 8. Chatterjee R Choudhuri P Laska N. Influence of nutrient management practices for minimizing whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. population in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. International Journal of Science Environment and Technology. 2013 25:956-962. 9. Chau A Heinz KM. Manipulating fertilization: a management tactic against Frankliniella occidentalis on potted chrysanthemum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2006 120:201-209. 10. Facknath S Lalljee B. Effect of soil-applied complex fertilizer on an insect–host plant relationship: Liriomyza trifolii on Solanum tuberosum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 12005 151:67-77. 11. Gash AF Carter N Bale JS. The Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on the Cereal Aphids Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae. In Proceeding of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference Brighton UK BCPC: Farnham Surrey UK 1996 209- 214. 12. Godfery LD Keillor K Hutmacher RB Cisneros JJ. Interaction of cotton aphid population dynamics and cotton fertilization regime in California. Cotton Proceeding Belt wide Cotton Conference Orlando Florida USA. 1999 2:1008-1011. 13. Huberty AF Denno RF. Consequences of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation for the performance of two planthoppers with divergent life-history strategies. Oecologia. 2006 149:444-455. 14. Jansson RK Smilowitz Z. Influence of nitrogen on population parameters of potato insects: Abundance population growth and within-plant distribution of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Homoptera: Aphididae. Environmental Entomology. 1986 15:49-55. 15. Jauset AM Sarasúa MJ Avila J Albajes R. The impact of nitrogen fertilization on feeding site selection and oviposition by Trialeurodes vaporariorum Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 1998 86:175-182. 16. Keeping MG Meyer JH. Effect of four sources of silicon on resistance of sugarcane varieties to Eldana saccharina Walker Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Proceeding of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association. 2003 77:99- 103. 17. Ma JF Takahashi E. Soil Fertilizer and Plant Silicon Research in Japan. Elsevier Science Amesterdam The Netherlands. 2002. 18. Rashid MM Jahan M Islam KS. Impact of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium on brown planthopper and tolerance of its host rice plants. Rice Science. 2016 233:119-131. 19. Rostami M Zamani AA Goldastech S Shoushtari RV Kheradmand K. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on biology of Aphis gossypii. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2016 521:118-121. 20. Rustamani MA Memon N Leghari MH Dhaunroo MH Sheikh SA. Impact of various fertilizer levels on the incidence of sucking complex in cotton. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 1999 314:323-326. 21. Sasamoto K. Resistance of the rice plant applied with silicate and nitrogenous fertilizers to the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker. In Proceedings of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Education 3 Yamanasaki University Japan 1961. 22. Sauge MH Grechi I Poessel JL. Nitrogen fertilization effects on Myzus persicae aphid dynamics on peach: Vegetative growth allocation or chemical defence Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2010 136:123-133. 23. Simpson SJ Clissold FJ Lihoreau M Ponton F Wilder SW Raubenheimer D. Recent Advances in the Integrative Nutrition of Arthropods Annual Review of Entomology. 2015 60:16.1-16.19.

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