Team Mental Workload.

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Team Mental Workload:

Team Mental Workload By: Carmel Bachar , Brittany Linton, and Alexandra Fratin

Welcome!:

Welcome!

What is Mental Workload::

What is Mental Workload: Workload: index of the available resources relative to the demand of the task

The Incredible’s::

The Incredible’s : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9CZjr7rf6E How to improve team cohesion?

Team Workload::

Team Workload: Team workload = teamwork demands task work task performance team interactions Team members must share time

Team Workload::

Team Workload: the relationship between the performance capacities of a team and the demands placed on the team by its performance environment When team resources are in balance with environmental demands team performance is optimized When team task impose workload demands that exceed a teams ability to fulfill them team coordination and performance may be diminished

Teamwork demands: :

Teamwork demands: 2 tasks occur concurrently Task work team interactions with task Team workload interpersonal interactions

Team Workload as a Balance Act::

Team Workload as a Balance Act: Interaction and Coordination Vs Demands imposed by the tasks

Examples of Mental Tasks::

Examples of Mental Tasks: Vigilance Problem recognition and diagnosis Planning and action Prioritisation Communication Remembering to do things Rapid integration Coping with the unexpected

Factors that influence team performance::

Factors that influence team performance: Coordination Communication Leadership and support Time sharing

Factors that influence team performance::

Factors that influence team performance: Coordination “performing organized operations to fulfill common criteria” Implicit: shared understanding about task and responsibilities Explicit: members need to communicate plans actions and responsibilities Communication “how info is exchanged” High communication: more information is exchanged and more information is being processed Low communication: less information is being exchanged and less information is being processed

Factors that influence team performance::

Factors that influence team performance: Leadership and support “providing needed guidance to other team members” Leadership includes the anticipation of tasks that should be performed as well as the instruction to other team members to enable them to perform or complete the tasks Support refers to monitoring the activities of other team members, taking actions to correct errors and giving and receiving feedback Time sharing “team members must time share requirements for interaction and coordination with the demands imposed by performing assigned tasks”

Slide 13:

Possible to administer both subjective and objective measures to teams Subjective measures are more practical in a team environment than objective measures

Question 1::

Question 1: What is the definition of team mental workload and list 2 factors that affect workload

Evaluation of Team Mental Workload: :

Evaluation of Team Mental Workload: 1) Performance- based Measures 2) Subjective Measures 3) Physiological Measures

How to Determine What Type of Measure to Use::

How to Determine What Type of Measure to Use: Accuracy, reliability, validity, sensitivity, time, intrusiveness, operator acceptance, and predictability Determine what type of data needs to be collected Determine the ease of collecting, processing, and analyzing the results Determine the cost of the measure and time necessary to conduct a measurement For maximum accuracy it is necessary to use multiple measures in combination

Performance-Based Measures::

Performance-Based Measures: Increase in task difficulty will lead to an increase in demands, which will decrease performance Primary and secondary task A primary task measures the workload based on the capability to perform the main task A secondary task is additional to the measure of a primary task

Example of Primary and Secondary Task::

Example of Primary and Secondary Task: Surgeon in an operating room: Primary task: Conduct a surgery (cut, remove, stitch) Secondary task: communicating with nurses, monitoring patients vitals Surgical team in an operating room: Primary task: Aid the surgeon in conducting the operation Secondary task: communication when passing tools, monitor vitals

Advantages of Performance- Based Measures: :

Advantages of Performance- Based Measures: Primary task performance offers a direct measure of performance Effective when measuring workload in tasks that are lengthy in duration Easy to use and the data gathered are easy to analyse Secondary task performance measures are effective at discriminating between tasks

  Disadvantages of Performance -Based Measures: :

Disadvantages of Performance -Based Measures: The sensitivity of measures may be questionable When used in isolation, primary task measures have limited reliability Secondary task measures are highly intrusive to primary task performance Great care is required during the design and selection of the secondary task to be used Extra work and resources are required in developing the secondary task performance measure Primary and secondary need to be used together to be effective Expensive

Subjective Measures::

Subjective Measures: Rankings or scales to measure the amount of workload Devoted to question and answer responses from a subject Unidimensional and multidimensional No diagnostic information about the source of workload Multidimensiona ratings have multiple subscales

Advantages of Subjective Measures: :

Advantages of Subjective Measures: Scales often show the highest validity Minimal costs associated Easy to implement Can be applied to a wide range of tasks Non- intrusive Practical

Disadvantages of Subjective Measures::

Disadvantages of Subjective Measures: Scales can be influenced by subjects Subjects have to be trained or familiarized with the scales Ratings don’t provide continuous measurements of workload The more ratings there are the more difficult it becomes to use the ratings while performing a task

Question 2::

Question 2: What are the 3 methods used to evaluate team mental workload? List an advantage and disadvantage for each

Two Types of Subjective Workload Measures::

Two Types of Subjective Workload Measures: National Aeronautics and Space Association – Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT)

NASA-TLX::

NASA-TLX: Multidimensional subjective workload assessment tool There are 2 ways of taking this assessment: Pencil and paper Computer based

NASA-TLX::

NASA-TLX: Six subscales: Mental demands Physical demands Temporal demands Own performance Effort Frustration

NASA-TLX::

NASA-TLX: Assessments: Weights AKA sources of load Determines which of the 6 subscales contributed most to workload of that particular task Scores are tallied from 0 to 5 Ratings AKA magnitude of load Along a continuum of each of the six scales Each scale is divided into 20 equal intervals Very practical Combine AKA weighting and averaging procedure Combines weights and ratings Multiplies each rating by the weight given to that factor by that subject The sum of the weighted ratings is divided by 15

Example of NASA-TLX::

Example of NASA-TLX: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOni_bwMH-Q

Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT)::

Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): Time load : Whether a task needs to be performed in a minimal amount of time Do multiple tasks have to be carried out at the same time? Mental Effort load: Attentional demands of task Psychological stress load: Fatigue, level of training, emotional state, anxiety etc

How to Use SWAT: :

How to Use SWAT: Participant first performs a card sorting task (CS) pre-task procedure Ranks 27 cards involving different combinations of the 3 different dimensions Each card represents a task that would occur in each of the 3 workload dimensions At each dimension, there is a card that represents the lowest mental workload and the highest mental workload Participants must rank the cards from lowest to highest Participants ratings were then put into a conjoint analysis program The look-up table had a workload rating from 0 to 100 for each of the 27 possible ratings combinations Can then estimate workload for different situations of the individual dimensions

SWAT Cont. :

SWAT Cont. Participant then performs a task scoring procedure After each experimental trial, subjects were given a rating sheet with the three levels of the three scales listed (subjects ranked based on their experiences) These ratings were then combined to form workload rating by using the lookup table

Problems with SWAT::

Problems with SWAT: Not very sensitive for low mental workloads Requires a time-consuming card sorting pre-task procedure

Question 3::

Question 3: Which method of administering NASA TLX is more effective in evaluating team mental workload?

Physiological Measures of Workload::

Physiological Measures of Workload: Physiological measurement of workload is a factually based concept Physiological measurements can be measured in cardiac activity, brain activity, eye activity, and respiratory activity

Advantages of Physiological Measures::

Advantages of Physiological Measures: Accurate, valid, reliable Data are recorded continuously throughout task performance Does not interfere with primary task performance

Disadvantages of Physiological Measures::

Disadvantages of Physiological Measures: Physical activity can influence physiological measures Can restrict mobility of the operator Can be affected by emotional factors Data analysis can be demanding Hard to calculate Some expensive equipment Some methods can take a long time to administer

How to Manage Team Workload::

How to Manage Team Workload: Evenly distribute activities by planning, prioritizing and assigning tasks Avoid underload and overload Operate in an optimum workload environment

Components of Managing Team Mental Workload::

Components of Managing Team Mental Workload: Prioritize Categorize tasks based on importance Ensure that fundamental tasks are accomplished first Team members must be aware of what your priorities are

Management cont.:

Management cont. Delegate Must assign duties and responsibilities within your team Reduce individual crew member’s workloads Frees up extra mental capacity

Management cont.:

Management cont. Work smarter, not harder Avoid unnecessary work Transfer the work you have to do from busy periods to less busy periods The most output for least input Simplify whenever possible

Management cont.:

Management cont. Spare mental capacity A combination of the above will allow you to do this

Question 4::

Question 4: What are the 4 components needed to successfully manage your team?

Analysis of The Incredible’s Video::

Analysis of The Incredible’s Video:

Conclusion::

Conclusion: Utilize performance based or subjective measures to determine amount of workload imposed on team members Incorporate workload management strategies such as prioritising, delegating, working smarter, and sparing mental capacity

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