Project Scope Management : Project Scope Management - Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management Project Scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Project scope is the definition of the end result or mission of your project. Scope describes what you expect to deliver to your customer when the project is complete Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management Product scope. The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result. A product or service for your client/customer. A project may result in a single product, but that product can include subsidiary components, each with its own separate, but interdependent, product scope. e.g a new telephone system would generally include four subsidiary components—hardware, software, training, and implementation. Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes “all the work required”, and “only the work required”, to complete the project successfully; Project scope management is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what “is” and “is not” included in the project. Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management Research clearly shows that a poorly defined scope or mission is the most frequently mentioned barrier to project success. Studies also reveals a very strong correlation between project success and clear scope definition. The scope should be developed under the direction of project manager and customer. And they should both agree on the project objectives, deliverables at each stage etc. Some Terminologies: Some Terminologies Scope Baseline The approved detailed project scope statement and its associated WBS are the scope baseline for the project. Project Scope Management Plan: The project scope management plan provides guidance on how project scope will be defined, documented, verified, managed, and controlled by the project management team. Project Scope Statement: The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables Some Terminologies: Some Terminologies Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): Once the deliverables and scope have been identified, the work of project can be successively subdivided into smaller and smaller work elements. The outcome of this process is called the Work Breakdown Structure. Thus the WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team, to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables; The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project. The WBS also serves as a map of the project. Project Scope Management: Project Scope Management In order to ensure that the scope definition is complete, a proper checklist should be developed; Developing the scope checklist helps a lot in preparing the Statement of Work ( SoW ). Project Scope Checklist: Project Scope Checklist Project objectives Deliverables Milestones Technical requirements Limits and exclusions Reviews with customer Project Objectives: Project Objectives The first step of project scope definition is to define the major objectives to meet your customer’s needs. For example, as a result of extensive market research a computer software company decides to develop a program that automatically translates verbal sentences in English to Urdu. The project should be completed within three years at a cost not to exceed $1.5 million. Project objectives: Project objectives Another example can be promotion of sports activities through construction of a football stadium for the local community in 18 months at a cost not to exceed $13 million Project objectives must answer the questions of what, when and how much. Project Deliverables: Project Deliverables The next step is to define the project deliverables The expected outputs over the life of the project. For example, deliverables in the early design phase of a project might be a list of specifications. In the second phase the deliverables could be software coding and technical manual. Project Deliverables: Project Deliverables The next phase could be to test prototypes. The final phase could be final tests and approved software. Deliverables typically include time, quantity and/or cost estimates. Milestones: Milestones It is a significant event in the project that occurs at a point in time. The milestone schedules shows only major segments of work These are built using the deliverables as a platform to identify major segments of work and an end date, Milestones: Milestones For example, testing complete and finished by July 01 of the same year. Milestones should be realistic and easy for all project participants to recognize. Technical requirements: Technical requirements Quite often a product or service will have technical requirements to ensure proper performance. For example technical requirements for a personal computer might be the ability to accept 120 volt alternating current or 240 volt direct current with out any adapters. Another example can be the ability of 911 emergency systems to identify the caller’s phone number and location of the phone. Limits and exclusions: Limits and exclusions The limits of scope must be defined. Failure to do so can lead to false expectations and to expending resources and time on the wrong problems. Examples of limits are local air transportation to and from base camps will be outsourced. System maintenance and repair will be done only up to one month after final inspection. Limits and exclusions: Limits and exclusions Client will be billed for additional training beyond the prescribed in the contract. exclusions further define the boundary of the project by stating what is not included For example, data will be collected by client, not the contractor. a house will be built, but no landscaping or security devices are included. Software will be installed, but no training given. Reviews with Customer: Reviews with Customer Completion of scope checklist ends with a review with your customer, internal or external. The main concern here is the understanding and agreement of expectations. Is the customer getting what he or she desires in deliverables? Reviews with Customer: Reviews with Customer Are they getting what is required at the end of the project? Are questions of limits and exclusions covered? Clear communication in all these issues is imperative to avoid claims or misunderstandings. Project Scope Creep : Project Scope Creep Clear scope definition ensures that you will know when a change in scope occurs. If requirements are not completely defined and described and if there is no effective change control system in a project, scope or requirement creep may arise Project Scope Creep: Project Scope Creep Scope creep is a term which refers to the incremental expansion of the scope of a project, which may include or introduce more requirements that may not have been a part of the initial planning of the project. In other words, uncontrolled changes are often referred to as project scope creep. Project Scope Creep: Project Scope Creep There can be two types of project scope creep Business Scope Creep: it may be a result of poor requirements definition early in development, or the failure to include the users of the project until the later stage of the project. Project Scope Creep: Project Scope Creep Feature or Technology Scope Creep: When the scope creep is introduced by technologists by adding features which were not originally in the scope of project. Customer pleasing scope creep occurs when the desire to please the customer through additional product features adds more work to the current project. Project Scope Creep Mgt: Project Scope Creep Mgt Project scope control is concerned with influencing the factors that create project scope changes and controlling the impact of those changes; Scope creep management is therefore very important for effective project management. Projects are expected to meet the deadlines under constraints of time, cost etc; A change in the scope could therefore affect the success of a project; Project Scope Creep Mgt: Project Scope Creep Mgt Projects therefore must have an integrated change control system in place; Scope control assures that all requested changes and recommended corrective actions are processed through the project Integrated Change Control System; It helps in confirming that a particular change is ultimately imperative or not, for a successful completion of a project. Scope Change Control System: Scope Change Control System A project scope change control system, documented in the project scope management plan, defines the procedures by which the project scope and product scope can be changed; The system includes the documentation, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes; When the project is managed under a contract, the change control system also complies with all relevant contractual provisions Scope Change Control System: Scope Change Control System If the approved changes have an effect on the project scope, then the corresponding component documents and cost baseline, and schedule baselines of the project management plan, are revised and re-issued to reflect the approved changes; The updated project scope statement becomes the new project scope baseline for future changes. Scope Verification: Scope Verification Scope Verification: Scope verification is the process of obtaining the stakeholders’ formal acceptance of the completed project scope and associated deliverables; Those completed deliverables that have not been accepted are documented, along with the reasons for non-acceptance; If the project is terminated early, the project scope verification process should establish and document the level and extent of completion. Scope Verification: Scope Verification Scope verification differs from quality control in that scope verification is primarily concerned with acceptance of the deliverables, while quality control is primarily concerned with meeting the quality requirements specified for the deliverables. Quality control is generally performed before scope verification, but these two processes can be performed in parallel.