Brain-computer Interfaces

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SARDAR PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT:

SARDAR PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DEPT. OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING Prepared by:- Himanshu Paliwal CSE(3rd sem) Brain-computer Interfaces (BCI)

Brain-computer Interfaces:

Brain-computer Interfaces It is a bidirectional/direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. Research on BCI began in the 1970s at the  University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)

Introduction (1 of 2) :

Introduction (1 of 2) Its also known as direct neural interface or a brain–machine interface (BMI) Human-computer-interaction involves directly translating thoughts of the user into commands to the computer. As we all know our brains are filled with neurons, individual nerve cells connected to one another by dendrites and axons. Hans Berger

Introduction (2 of 2):

Introduction (2 of 2) Every time we think, move, feel or remember something, our neurons are at work. The signals are generated by differences in electric potential carried by ions on the membrane of each neuron. One can detect those signals, interpret what they mean and use them to direct a device of some kind.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nicolelis monkey experiment

PowerPoint Presentation:

Electrode plantation

BCI Input and Output:

BCI Input and Output The easiest and least invasive method is a set of electrodes -- a device known as an electroencephalograph (EEG) -- attached to the scalp. The electrodes can read brain signals.

The basic mechanism [Output]  :

The basic mechanism [Output] The electrodes measure minute differences in the voltage between neurons. The signal is then amplified and filtered. In current BCI systems, it is then interpreted by a computer program.

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Output

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In 2004 an electrode array was implanted into his brain to restore functionalities he had lost due to paralysis. Matt Nagle - The first person subjected to BCI research. He was able to control the TV, check emails and do basically everything that can be achieved by using a mouse.

The basic mechanism [Input]:

The basic mechanism [Input] Feeding electrical signals to the brain is the biggest challenge. A computer converts a signal, such as one from a video camera, into the voltages necessary to trigger neurons. The signals are sent to a proper area of brain, the subject would be able to visual image corresponding to what the camera sees.

Magnetic Resonance Image [MRI]:

Magnetic Resonance Image [MRI] It produces very high-resolution images of brain activity. It can be used as BCI input. If we want to control a robot. We would ask the subject to think about moving his/her actual arm.

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Using MRI

BCI Applications (1 of 2):

BCI Applications (1 of 2) The most interesting thing is the development of devices that can be controlled by thoughts. For example:- Ability to control a video game by thought. Changing channels with your mind. Controlling a computer cursor via mental commands Give senses to the disabled people.

BCI Applications (2 of 2):

BCI Applications (2 of 2) External knowledge databases (Google in your head) A typical keypad can be replaced with a imaginary keypad using BCI.

Latest Achievements :

Latest Achievements A company called Cyberkinetics has produced a pill sized chip called Braingate which is more effective than any other technique. It consists of 100 electrodes.

Current Projects:

Current Projects Berlin Brain-Computer-Interface (BBCI) The BBCI project is sponsored by the Ministry for Education and Research of the German government. The goal of the project is the development of an EEG based BCI system. Graz Brain-Computer-Interface The University of Graz, Austria has also a research project for Brain-Computer-Interfaces.

BCI Drawbacks:

BCI Drawbacks There are chemical processes involved which EEGs can't pick up on. EEGs measure tiny voltage potentials. BCI require a wired connection to the equipment. Equipment for BCI is not portable. “Reading” of the mind could be put to criminal use, e.g. unwanted reading of passwords, locations, etc.

References:

References Hans Berger http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Berger Brain-Computer Interface http://www.nanoaging.com/wiki/Braincomputer_interface Graz Brain-Computer-Interface http://bci.tugraz.at/index.html

Thank You:

Thank You DEPT. OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

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