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Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and controlData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 2 Data, Information, and Systems Data vs. Information Data A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture Represents something in the real world The raw materials in the production of information Information Data that have meaning within a context Data in relationships Data after manipulationData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 3 Data, Information, and Systems Data Manipulation Example: customer survey Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful. When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.Data, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 4 Data, Information, and Systems Generating Information Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output. Figure 1.1 Input-process-outputData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 5 Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information Data, Information, and Systems Information in ContextData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 6 Data, Information, and Systems What Is a System? System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems Open system: System that interfaces with other systemsData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 7 Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.Data, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 8 Data, Information, and Systems Information and Managers Systems thinking Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making. Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.Data, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 9 Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergyData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 10 Data, Information, and Systems The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy Synergy When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of dataData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 11 Data, Information, and Systems Figure 1.6 Components of an information systemData, Information, and Systems: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 12 Data, Information, and Systems The Four Stages of Data Processing Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools. Output: Information is displayed or presented. Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.Why Study IS?: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 13 Why Study IS? Information Systems Careers Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Knowledge Workers Managers and non-managers Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy Key to full participation in western societyEthical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side: MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 14 Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Consumer Privacy Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. Employee Privacy IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress.Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side : MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 15 Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech. IT Professionalism No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions. Social Inequality Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.