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Causes of Organizational Change : Customers needs Technology Competition Government International influence What others? Causes of Organizational Change Barriers to Change : Habits Routine Negative Thinking Attitude Culture Subjectivity Emotions Barriers to Change Questions to ask before Introducing Change : Before starting organizational change, ask yourself: What do we want to achieve with this change, why, and how will we know that the change has been achieved? Who is affected by this change, and how will they react to it? How much of this change can we achieve ourselves, and what parts of the change do we need help with? These aspects also relate strongly to the management of personal as well as organizational change. Questions to ask before Introducing Change Don’t of Change Management : Do not sell change to people as a way of accelerating 'agreement' and implementation. 'Selling' change to people is not a sustainable strategy for success, unless your aim is to be bitten on the bum at some time in the future when you least expect it. When people listen to a management high-up 'selling' them a change, decent diligent folk will generally smile and appear to accede, but quietly to themselves, they're thinking, "No bloody chance mate, if you think I'm standing for that load of old bollocks you've another think coming…" Don’t of Change Management Rather… : Instead, change needs to be understood and managed in a way that people can cope effectively with it. Change can be unsettling, so the manager logically needs to be a settling influence. Check that people affected by the change agree with, or at least understand, the need for change, and have a chance to decide how the change will be managed, and to be involved in the planning and implementation of the change. Use face-to-face communications to handle sensitive aspects of organisational change management. Encourage your managers to communicate face-to-face with their people too if they are helping you manage an organizational change. Rather… Change management principles : At all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational). Understand where you/the organisation is at the moment. Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there. Write the vision, make it clear Plan development towards achieving No.3 above in appropriate achievable measurable stages. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible. Change management principles Eight steps to successful change : Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant. Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels. Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency. Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against. Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements. Eight steps to successful change Eight steps to successful change : Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones. Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture. Eight steps to successful change Fast Changing Environment and ICT : Key elements for success: Plan long-term broadly - a sound strategic vision Detailed five years plans are out of date two weeks after they are written. Focus on detail for establishing and measuring delivery of immediate actions, not medium-to-long-term plans. Establish forums and communicating methods to enable immediate review and decision-making. Participation of interested people is essential. Empower people to make decisions at a local operating level - delegate responsibility and power as much as possible (or at least encourage people to make recommendations which can be quickly approved). Fast Changing Environment and ICT Fast Changing Environment and ICT : Remove (as far as is possible) from strategic change and approval processes and teams (or circumvent) any ultra-cautious, ultra-autocratic or compulsively-interfering executives. Encourage, enable and develop capable people to be active in other areas of the organization via 'virtual teams‘. Scrutinise and optimise ICT (information and communications technology) systems to enable effective information management and key activity team-working. Use workshops as a vehicle to review priorities, agree broad medium-to-long-term vision and aims, and to agree short term action plans and implementation method and accountabilities. Adjust recruitment, training and development to accelerate the development of people who contribute positively to a culture of empowered dynamism. Fast Changing Environment and ICT Introducing ICT to aid change management : As a broad guide when managing this sort of change, these aspects are important for the process: Really understand and clarify mutual expectations about the level of detail and cost that the project requires. The organisational context, and other strategic drivers, personalities and politics are often more significant influences than the task analysis. As a project manager, agree expectations on a pragmatic basis. Agree the templates and systems to be used and the the level of report data required for the decisions to be made. Assume that the situation can be improved - it generally can be, so while it's essential to capture all activities based on current jobs, many of these can be absorbed, superseded, updated, etc. Introducing ICT to aid change management Introducing ICT to aid change management : A new overview analysis enables fresh unencumbered look at the whole, which suggests new and better ways of doing things. A flip chart and a few creative minds are the main pre-requisites. In terms of capturing all current processes and inputs, the individual job analysis templates need to enable jobs to be broken down into sub-tasks, and elements within sub-tasks. Treat people at risk with the respect they deserve and avoid keeping them in the dark - involve threatened people wherever possible so they can see what's happening and why. Try to establish counselling and support resources if none exist already- Training and Development Introducing ICT to aid change management Introducing ICT to aid change management : Analyses should identify critical vs essential task elements Flow diagrams identify subtask linkage (inter and intra), variation and chronology. Behaviour needs identifying aside from processes. Standards, performance tolerance, % reliability, etc., should be indicated in task analysis as applicable to the sub-task or activity concerned. Prune those who will not change Introducing ICT to aid change management Case Studies : Short and beautifully simple analogies useful for illustrating aspects of causing or dealing with change, for example : The Crow and the Pitcher (change being provoked by pressure or necessity) The North Wind and the Sun (gentle persuasion rather than force) The Lion and The Ass (enforced change - might is right) The Crab and his Mother (lead by example and evidence - or you'll not change people) The Miller, his Son and the Ass (no single change is likely to please everyone - everyone wants something different) The Oak and the Reeds (the need for tolerance - changer or 'changees') The Rich Man and the Tanner, (time softens change - given time people get used to things) The Ass and the Mule (agree to reasonable change now or you can risk far worse enforced change in the future) Case Studies Case studies : You have been an employee in major commercial bank for the past 15 years. Recently the bank reengineered and introduced ICT into their system. You are not computer literate to understand this software and you feel comfortable with your normal written records. The management spent huge amount in training for one month you but because of old age, most of you find it difficult to understand the process. The management has given a directive, use this software or resign. In trying to learn by doing, you used the software and it has made you inefficient that you are now lost over N1.5 Million to wrong data entry and over paying some clients (all of which you cannot prove). Your retirement benefits is just N2.5 Million. If you resign now, the management will deduct N1.5 Million from your expected severance benefits of N1.7 Million. What do you do? Advice the management? Case studies You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.