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Theories of Personality Power Point Presentation by Avidan Milevsky, Ph.D. Touro College South:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Personality Power Point Presentation by Avidan Milevsky, Ph.D. Touro College South This presentation copyright Susan C. Cloninger. Some images are from "Holy Cow! 250,000 Graphics," by Macmillan Digital Publishing USA.

“Who am I?” :

“Who am I?” “I am . . .” 1. 2. 3. . . 20. Beside each number list what you consider to be some of your positive and negative personality qualities.

PowerPoint Presentation:

1. Introduce yourself to the other group members and tell them about your personality. 2. As a group identify the four descriptive terms used most frequently on the exercise. Why do you think these specific terms were used to describe personality? 3. Identify any of the self-descriptive terms that do not really qualify as personality characteristics. What makes a personal quality part of your personality?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER ONE Introduction to Personality Theory

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Overview Personality: The Study of Individuals Definition of Personality Description of Personality Differences Between People: Groups or Gradations? Comparing People or Studying Individuals Personality Dynamics Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Culture

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Overview Cont. Personality Development Biological Influences Experience in Childhood and Adulthood The Scientific Approach Theory Criteria of a Good Theory Relationship Between Theory and Research Methods in Personality Research Personality Measurement Correlational Studies Experimentation Studying Individuals One Theory or Many? Eclecticism and the Future of Personality Theory

Personality: The Study of Individuals:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality: The Study of Individuals Definition of Personality The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and experience

Definition of Personality:

Definition of Personality Description Dynamics Development Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Description of Personality:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Description of Personality Types: Old approach Categories Hippocrates  Optimistic, Melancholic, Irritable, Apathetic Traits Varies from one person to another Is more focued The numbers are astonishing Factors Are broader than traits They are quantitative

Personality Dynamics Motivations for Behavior:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Dynamics Motivations for Behavior Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Culture How do people adapt to life’s demands? How does a mentally healthy person act? What behaviors or thoughts are unhealthy?

Personality Dynamics:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Dynamics Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Culture Do our thoughts affect our personality? What kinds of thoughts are important for personality? Do unconscious processes influence us?

Personality Dynamics:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Dynamics Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Culture How does culture influence our functioning? Does culture affect us by its expectations for men and women? For different classes?

Personality Development:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Development Biological Influences Experience in Childhood and Adulthood How do biological processes affect personality? Is personality inherited?

Personality Development:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Development Biological Influences Experience in Childhood and Adulthood What do children learn that matters for personality? Does childhood experience determine adult personality? Do adults change? Or has personality been determined earlier?

The Scientific Approach:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. The Scientific Approach method of knowing based on systematic observation Scientific method: the assumption that phenomena have causes that can be discovered by empirical research neurotransmitter causes of experience thoughts that influence moods and choices Determinism: Examples:

The Scientific Approach:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. The Scientific Approach THEORY A conceptual tool for understanding certain specific phenomena

Levels of Thinking in Theory:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Levels of Thinking in Theory

Levels of Thinking in Theory: Another View:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Levels of Thinking in Theory: Another View

Hypotheses Derived From a Theoretical Proposition:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Hypotheses Derived From a Theoretical Proposition

Relationship between theory and research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Relationship between theory and research Theory Research

Relationship between theory and research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Relationship between theory and research ideas about personality that are held by ordinary people (not based on formal theory) assuming that attractive people are warm and trustworthy assuming that HIV positive people look different from HIV negative people Implicit theories: Examples:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research Personality measurements: reliability validity measurement techniques

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research repeatability, as when a measurement is repeated at another time or by another observer, with similar results a correlation between assessment of extraversion once and a month later shows good agreement two raters assess a person’s behavior, with similar results Reliability: Examples:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research test-retest reliability alternate forms reliability split-half reliability Methods of Reliability Testing:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research desirable characteristic of a test, indicating that it actually does measure what it is intended to measure a trait of extraversion a fixation from childhood conflict Validity: Examples:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research measurement techniques direct self-report measures, i.e., "How important is achievement to you?" (on a 10-point scale) indirect methods open-ended questions, i.e., “What would you look for in an ideal job?” projective tests, i.e., inkblots behavioral measures How often does the person choose to spend time alone instead of with other people? How often does the student turn in assignments late?

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research research method that examines the relationships among measures research that correlates intelligence measures with career success research that correlates maladjustment with childhood abuse Correlational research: Examples:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research research strategy that manipulates a cause to determine its effect manipulating exposure to television violence to determine effect on aggressive behavior subliminal exposure to stimuli to determine effect on symptoms Experimental research: Examples:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research Manipulate the variable thought to be a “cause,” called the “independent variable.” for example, violent vs. nonviolent TV experimental group watches violent TV control group watches nonviolent TV Everything constant except the cause Random assignment to control 3rd variables Does the “effect” (dependent variable) change? Experimental research:

Methods in Personality Research:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods in Personality Research case study an intensive investigation of a single individual e.g., clinical observation of one person psychobiography the application of a personality theory to the study of an individual’s life theoretical emphasis Case Studies & Psychobiography:

One Theory or Many? Eclecticism and the Future of Personality Theory:

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. One Theory or Many? Eclecticism and the Future of Personality Theory a basic theoretical model, shared by various theorists and researchers behavioral perspective humanistic perspective evolutionary perspective Paradigm: Examples:

Chapter summary Personality: The Study of Individuals Description of Personality Personality Dynamics Personality Development The Scientific Approach Methods in Personality Research :

Prepared to accompany Theories of Personality (5th ed.) by Susan C. Cloninger (2008), published by Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter summary Personality: The Study of Individuals Description of Personality Personality Dynamics Personality Development The Scientific Approach Methods in Personality Research

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