Nuclear hazards


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Nuclear pollution


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Anand Raja’s Seminar on Nuclear hazards

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Definition: Risk or danger to human health or the environment posed by radiation emanating from the atomic nuclei of a given substance, or the possibility of an uncontrolled explosion originating from a fusion or fission reaction of atomic nuclei .

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NUCLEAR HAZARDS Radioactive substances are present in nature They undergo natural radioactive decay in which unstable isotopes spontaneously give out Fast moving particles, high energy radiations or both, at a fixed rate until a new stable isotope is formed The isotopes release energy either in the form of Gamma rays ( high energy Electromagnetic radiation) Alpha particles & beta particles ( ionization particles ) Alpha particles: fast moving positively charged particles Beta particles: high speed negatively charged electrons These ionization radiations have variable penetration power

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Natural sources: Cosmic rays from outer space ,Radioactive Radon-222 ,Soil , rocks, air, water & food Anthropogenic sources: Nuclear power plants ,Nuclear accidents X-rays , Diagnostic kits , Test laboratories Sources of radioactivity

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Effects of radiations Genetic damage: is caused by radiations This induce mutations in the DNA, there by affecting Genes & chromosomes The damage is often seen in the offsprings and may be transmitted up to several generations Somatic damage: includes burns, miscarriages, eye cataract & cancer of bone, thyroid, breast, lungs, skin

Control of nuclear pollution:

Control of nuclear pollution Sitting of nuclear power plant should be carefully done after studying long term and short term effects Proper disposal of wastes from laboratory involving the use of radioisotopes should be done.

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