mushroom processing and handling

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Mushrooms production and handling : 

Mushrooms production and handling

Modern History of Mushrooms : 

Modern History of Mushrooms The Agaricus, or White mushroom, was the first variety to be cultivated. The original mushroom “farms” were, and still are, located in quarry tunnels near Paris. Commercial mushroom growing began in France in the 17th century. In the late 19th century, mushroom production made its way across the Atlantic to the United States where curious home gardeners in the East tried their luck at growing this new and unknown crop.

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Domestic Production Commercial cultivation of fresh mushrooms began in the U.S. near Philadelphia in the early 20th century, eventually centering in the town of Kennett Square (Bucks County, PA). Today, Pennsylvania still leads the country in production, with California a strong second. More than twenty other states now add significantly to the total production. China is the world's largest edible mushroom producer.

Mushrooms : 

Mushrooms A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, hence the word for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white mushroom is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap, just as do store-bought white mushrooms. People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists, and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply "Mushrooming".

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Mycelium

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The mycelium grows underground !!! Mycelium Fruiting bodies

Slide 8: 

How the fruiting bodies appear ??

Mushrooms have a name and a last name : 

Mushrooms have a name and a last name Agaricus bisporus

… but also they have a nick name : 

… but also they have a nick name White button mushroom

Mushrooms and Witches : 

Mushrooms and Witches Witch's Hat

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Medicinal Decomposers Edible Toxic and poisonous Mushrooms ???

Fly agaricA toxic mushroom !!! : 

Fly agaricA toxic mushroom !!!

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Edible mushrooms must be included in our diet !!!

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Proteins Vitamins Minerals Low Fat Low Carbohydrates They Have ….

Mushrooms from the wild !!! : 

Mushrooms from the wild !!!

Remember... Not All are edibleA toxic mushroom !!! : 

Remember... Not All are edibleA toxic mushroom !!!

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Mushrooms from the store !!!

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Shiitake

Growing Mushrooms ??? : 

Growing Mushrooms ???

Mushroom Lifecycle and Cultivation Methods : 

Mushroom Lifecycle and Cultivation Methods Fungi, unlike green plants, lack chlorophyll and must therefore live on organic matter. Most edible fungi are Basidiomycetes, which produce spores, often on gill tissue. Spores function somewhat like seeds. In nature the spores are released, forcibly discharged or otherwise distributed. Mycelium, something like a root structure, then develop. Finally, the so-called “fruiting body,” which we know as the mushroom, is produced.

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Cultivation Methods A mature mushroom will drop as many as 16 billion spores. Spores are collected in the nearly sterile environment of a laboratory and then used to inoculate grains or seeds to produce a product called spawn. The medium, made of organic matter, is called compost, is scientifically formulated of various materials such as straw, corncobs, cottonseed and cocoa seed hulls, gypsum and nitrogen supplements. Preparing the compost takes one to two weeks. Then it's pasteurized and placed in large trays or beds. The spawn is worked into the compost and the growing takes place in specially constructed houses.

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In two to three weeks, the compost becomes filled with the mycelium. • A layer of pasteurized peat moss is spread over the compost. • The temperature of the compost and the humidity of the room must be carefully controlled in order for the mycelium to develop fully. • Tiny white protrusions form on the mycelium and push up through the peat moss. Farmers call this pinning. The pins continue to grow, becoming the mushroom caps, which are actually the fruit of the plant. It takes 17 to 25 days to produce mature mushrooms after the peat moss is applied. Size is no indication of maturity in mushrooms. Perfectly ripe ones vary from small buttons to large caps.

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Inoculation Rye grain spawn Substrate Selection How ??? Mix the substrate

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Incubation How ???

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After harvest the house is emptied and steam-sterilized before the process begins again. The remaining compost is recycled for potting soil. The entire process from the time the farmer starts preparing the compost until the mushrooms are harvested and shipped to market takes about four months.

Even in Caves !!! : 

Even in Caves !!!

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The Major Cultivated Varieties As a general rule, if a mushroom is larger, darker and has more open gills, that mushroom will have a deeper and more profound flavor. The smaller, paler and less open the mushroom is, the more delicate and subtle will be the flavor.

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Vary in color from creamy white to light brown and in size from small (button) to jumbo. They are pleasingly mild and woodsy; flavor intensifies when cooked. Freshly picked Agaricus have closed veils (caps that fit closely to the stem) and delicate flavor; mature Agaricus, with open veils and darkened caps, develop a richer, deeper taste. Whites (Agaricus, Agaricus Bisporus)

Crimini (Italian brown, Agaricus Bisporus) : 

Crimini (Italian brown, Agaricus Bisporus) • Similar in appearance to their relative, Agaricus. Look for a naturally light tan to rich brown cap and a very firm texture. Deeper, denser, earthier flavor than Agaricus.

Portabella (Portobello, Agaricus Bisporus) : 

Portabella (Portobello, Agaricus Bisporus) • Impressive in size and appearance, the Portabella is a larger, hardier relative of the Agaricus and Crimini. They can range up to six inches in diameter. A longer growing cycle than Agaricus, results in a deep, meat-like flavor and substantial texture.

Shiitake (Oak, Chinese or Black Forest, Lentinus edodes) : 

Shiitake (Oak, Chinese or Black Forest, Lentinus edodes) • Range in color from tan to dark brown with broad, umbrella-shaped caps, wide open veils and tan gills. Caps have a soft, spongy texture. Rich and woodsy with a meaty texture when cooked.

Oysters (Pleurotus spp.) : 

Oysters (Pleurotus spp.) • Fluted and graceful, Oyster mushrooms range in color from soft brown to gray. Best if cooked, they are delicate, mild flavored and have a velvety texture.

Enoki (Flammulina veluptipes) : 

Enoki (Flammulina veluptipes) • Fragile, flower-like Enoki mushrooms, with long slender stems and tiny caps, grow in small clusters. They have a mild, light flavor and a slight crunch.

Dried Mushrooms : 

Dried Mushrooms • Many types of mushrooms, both wild and cultivated are available in dried forms. • Dried mushrooms can be purchased in small quantity, such as one-ounce packages, which tend to be very expensive. • Dried Mushrooms have extremely concentrated flavors, so can provide excellent flavor when used in stocks, soups and sauces. • The texture of some dried mushrooms, even when rehydrated, tends to be tough and leathery, so in most cases they will not replace fresh mushrooms for most applications. • Due to their extremely concentrated flavor, they can provide a deep background flavor in dishes that will feature fresh cultivated mushrooms.

Culinary Applications for Mushrooms : 

Culinary Applications for Mushrooms Culinary Applications – Safety Cultivated mushrooms purchased from reputable sources can be considered safe. • Residue of the growing medium should be brushed off of mushrooms, but because it is pasteurized it is free from potential pathogens. • White and crimini mushrooms can be served raw or cooked. • Portabella, shiitake and oyster mushrooms should be cooked, based more on palatability than safety. Enoki mushrooms are generally served raw or as a last minute garnish with items being served hot. • Wild mushrooms should always be cooked.

Nutritional Information : 

Nutritional Information Fresh mushrooms are low in calories. Five medium sized white mushrooms have only 20 calories. • Mushrooms are fat-free. • Mushrooms are high in potassium and riboflavin and provide much- needed vitamins such as B1, B2, C and D. Mushrooms are a good source of niacin, pantothenate and copper. • Mushrooms are 90% water. • Mushrooms provide dietary fiber.

Culinary Applications : 

Culinary Applications Purchasing • Whole and sliced mushrooms are generally available in 5 and 10-pound containers. • Shiitake mushrooms are generally available in 3 and 5-pound containers. • Oyster mushrooms are generally available in 3, 4 and 5-pound containers. • Due to their delicate nature, Enoki mushrooms are packaged in 3 to 5-ounce vacuum-sealed bags and are generally sold by the case with 12 to 24 bags per case. • For optimum shelf life, mushrooms should arrive between 34°F. and 38°F.

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• Inspect mushrooms for crushing during shipping. • Mushrooms should smell fresh and earthy. Mushrooms with soft spots or bruising should be rejected. • Remember open caps and exposed gill tissue (White and Crimini) are not a sign of poor quality, but of maturity.

Handling and Storage : 

Handling and Storage •Immediately refrigerate both bulk and prepackaged mushrooms between 34°F. and 38°F. •Optimum humidity for storage is 85 to 90%, which also helps maintain quality and shelf life. •Store in original containers. Do not store in non-porous plastic bags, as non-porous plastic will accelerate mushroom deterioration. •Do not store near pungent items as mushrooms may absorb strong odors. •Do not stack heavy items on top of mushroom containers. •Do not wash before storage. Keep refrigerated in original containers. • Enokis and shiitakes last for up to 14 days. White,crimini & oyster mushrooms remain fresh5 to 7 days. Portabellas should hold 7 to 10 days.

Preparation : 

Preparation • Wipe mushrooms gently with a damp cloth or soft brush to remove dirt, trim stems if dry. • When ready to use, mushrooms may be gently rinsed in cool water and drained. • Shake gently to remove excess water. • Do not soak mushrooms because they readily absorb water which speeds up deterioration. • There is no need to peel mushrooms. The only trimming they may need is the stem end, if it's dry, or the tough stem portion of Shiitakes, or the root of the Portabella.

Cooking TechniquesSautéing : 

Cooking TechniquesSautéing • Probably the most popular way to cook mushrooms. • Mushrooms must be dry, the fat must be hot, almost to the smoking point. • Don't overcrowd the skillet or the mushrooms will steam rather than brown. • For each eight ounces of mushrooms, heat one tablespoon of fat in a large skillet. Add mushrooms. • Cook, stirring occasionally, until golden and the released juices have evaporated, about five minutes. • Ideal for: Whites, Crimini, Oyster, Shiitake • Works well with: Portabella

Grilling : 

Grilling • Preheat grill or broiler. • Lightly brush caps and stems with oil or an appropriately flavored marinade to keep them moist, and season with salt and pepper. • Grill or broil 4 to 6 inches from heat source for 4 to 6 minutes on each side, brushing again once or twice. • Ideal for: Portabella, Shiitake • Works well with: Crimini, Oyster

Frying : 

Frying •Mushrooms should generally be breaded or battered prior to frying. •Fry at 350°F. until the batter or breading is crisp and golden. •Serve immediately, since the moisture in mushrooms will tend to soften the breading/batter rather quickly. • Mushrooms may be thinly sliced and fried without batter or breading and used to add a crispy texture for garnish. • Ideal for: Portabellas, Shiitake • Works well with: Whites, Crimini, Oyster

Roasting : 

Roasting • Toss with a little oil, lemon juice and oil, or an appropriate marinade • Place mushrooms in a shallow baking pan or on a sheetpan, and roast in a 450°F. oven, stirring occasionally until brown, about 20 minutes. • Use about one tablespoon of oil for each eight ounces of mushrooms. • Ideal for: Portabella, Oyster, and Shiitake • Works well with: Crimini, Whites

Baking : 

Baking • Prepare mushrooms as for roasting, but cook at a slightly lower temperature, about 350°F. •This method is generally used for stuffed mushrooms. • Depending on the type of mushroom, the nature of the stuffing and that specific preparation, mushrooms may be partially cooked prior to baking. • Ideal for: Whites, Crimini, and Portabella

Braising : 

Braising • This classical procedure is often overlooked as a preparation for mushrooms in contemporary cooking. • Use small whole cleaned mushrooms or larger mushrooms cut into similarly sized pieces. • Mushrooms should first be stewed lightly in butter and seasoned with salt and pepper. • Add stock or cream (or other flavorful liquid), one pint per pound of mushrooms • Braise (liquid should not boil), covered, until the mushrooms are tender. reduce and incorporate cooking liquid • Ideal for: Whites, Crimini, and Oyster • Works well with: Shiitake

Smoking : 

Smoking • Smoked mushrooms may or may not be actually cooked. • To smoke whole or sliced mushrooms, follow the smoker manufacturer’s directions. • Mushrooms can be hot-smoked in which case they will need no further cooking. • Cold-smoked (uncooked) mushrooms can be sautéed briefly prior to serving. • Ideal for: Shiitake, Oyster, and Portabella • Works well with: Whites, Crimini

Uncooked : 

Uncooked • Mushrooms can be well cleaned and trimmed and incorporated in salads, vegetable (crudité) platters or used as an attractive final garnish in soups. • Whites and criminis are well suited for use in salads. • Enokis work well in soups or with fish dishes, especially those with an Asian flavor profile. • Ideal for: Enoki, Whites, and Crimini

Center of the PlateVegetarian Applications : 

Center of the PlateVegetarian Applications • Driven, in part by an increased awareness of diet’s role in health, many people have developed a willingness or desire to go “meatless.” • Creativity, experimentation and care are key to developing meatless meals. • Fresh mushrooms, with their deep, meat-like flavor and substantial texture are prime candidates for meat replacement in vegetarian dishes. • Mushrooms can provide a meaty quality and a depth of flavor that is difficult to achieve without the presence of meat.

As Flavor EnhancerHow Do They Work? : 

As Flavor EnhancerHow Do They Work? • “Bold flavors” are the buzzwords for dishes that sell well in the current marketplace. • Mushrooms are perceived by customers as providing this much desired flavor boost and customers will make their purchasing decisions accordingly. • The quality of Umami explains one of the ways in which mushrooms add depth of flavor, especially to meatless or reduced meat dishes. • More intense cooking techniques such as grilling provide the best of both worlds. The mushrooms themselves provide a depth of flavor, the chosen cooking method serve to intensify that flavor.

As Flavor EnhancerUmami : 

As Flavor EnhancerUmami • Some consider Umami it to be the fifth “taste,” in addition to the four known “tastes”: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. • Umami is the presence of a specific amino acid, glutamic acid. • Glutamic acid is found in animal flesh (meat, fish and poultry), ripe fruit, MSG (monosodium glutamate), seaweed, beans and mushrooms. • Umami has been described using the following terms: savory, hearty, earthy, the meatiness of meat and a quality of fruition (coming to completion). • The quality known as umami is a fullness and a depth of flavor.

Customer Perception : 

Customer Perception •Consumers believe fresh mushrooms communicate freshness and enhance flavor thus increasing the perceived value of a dish. • The USDA estimates that per capita consumption is over 2 ¼ pounds and increases by almost 12% annually. • Total shipments of mushrooms exceed 850 million pounds annually. • The sales of portabellas in recent years is particularly notable.

Marketing MushroomsSelling “Flavor” : 

Marketing MushroomsSelling “Flavor” • This increased value perception allows operators to raise menu pricing and increase profits. • Current research shows a continual increase in menu copy reference to mushrooms. • Research also indicates that mushrooms once considered exotic, such as portabellas and shiitakes, are now perceived by operators and consumers alike as mainstream.

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