cell-structure and functions

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Cell-Structure & functions:

Cell-Structure & functions

What is cell ?:

What is cell ? The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. Humans have about 100 trillion cells;

Cork cell as observed by Robert Hooke:

Cork cell as observed by Robert Hooke The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.

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Both, bricks in a building and cells in the living organisms, are base structural units. The buildings, though built of similar bricks have different designs, shapes and sizes. Similarly, in the living world, organisms differ from one another but all are made up of cells. Cells in the living organisms are complex living structures unlike non-living bricks. The egg of a hen represents a single cell and is big enough to be seen by unaided eye.

Onion peel:

Onion peel Brick wall

Anatomy :

Anatomy There are two types of cells: eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are those cells which have nuclear material without nuclear membrane. For ex- bacteria and blue green algae. The cell having well- organised nucleus with a nuclear membrane are called eukaryotic cells. For ex- onion cells and cheek cells.

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Generally, cells are round, spherical or elongated some cells are long and pointed at both ends. They exhibit a spindle shape. Cells sometimes are quite long. Some are branched like nerve cells or a neuron. Some are sphere like RBC.

Spherical red blood cells:

Long branched nerve cells Spherical red blood cells Spindle shaped muscle cells

Animal cell :

Animal cell An animal cell is a form of eukaryotic cell that makes up many tissues in animals . The animal cell is distinct from other eukaryotes, most notably plant cells , as they lack cell walls and chloroplasts , and they have smaller vacuoles . Due to the lack of a rigid cell wall , animal cells can adopt a variety of shapes, and a phagocytic cell can even engulf other structures.

Animal cell :

Animal cell

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There are many different cell types . For instance, there are approximately 210 distinct cell types in the adult human body.

Plant cell :

Plant cell Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic organisms. Their distinctive features are: A large central vacuole (enclosed by a membrane, the tonoplast ), which maintains the cell's turgor and controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap

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A primary cell wall containing cellulose , hemicellulose and pectin , deposited by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane Chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll , the pigment that gives plants their green color and allows them to perform photosynthesis Higher plants, including conifers and flowering plants lack the flagella and centrioles that are present in animal cells .

Plant cell :

Plant cell

Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells :

Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells Typical animal cell Typical plant cell Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus (within nucleus) Nucleolus (within nucleus) Rough ER Rough ER Smooth ER Smooth ER Ribosomes Ribosomes

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Organelles Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Mitochondria Mitochondria Vesicles Plastids Lysosomes Vacuole(s) Centrioles Cell wall

Prokaryotic cells :

Prokaryotic cells The prokaryote cell is simpler, and therefore smaller, than a eukaryote cell, lacking a nucleus and most of the other organelles of eukaryotes. There are two kinds of prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea (extremophiles) ; these share a similar structure.

Prokaryotic cell:

Prokaryotic cell

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Nuclear material of prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with cytoplasm. Here, the undefined nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called nucleoid. A prokaryotic cell has three architectural regions: On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell's surface. These are structures (not present in all prokaryotes) made of proteins that facilitate movement and communication between cells.

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Enclosing the cell is the cell envelope – generally consisting of a cell wall covering a plasma membrane though some bacteria also have a further covering layer called a capsule . The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from its environment, serving as a protective filter. Though most prokaryotes have a cell wall, there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma (bacteria) and Thermoplasma (archaea).

Peptidoglycan is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria (but not Archaea), forming the cell wall. :

Peptidoglycan is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria (but not Archaea ), forming the cell wall . The cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against exterior forces. It also prevents the cell from expanding and finally bursting ( cytolysis ) from osmotic pressure against a hypotonic environment. Some eukaryote cells (plant cells and fungi cells) also have a cell wall.

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Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the DNA and ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. A prokaryotic chromosome is usually a circular molecule (an exception is that of the bacterium Borrelia , which causes Lyme disease). Though not forming a nucleus , the DNA is condensed in a nucleoid .

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Prokaryotes can carry extrachromosomal DNA elements called plasmids , which are usually circular. Plasmids enable additional functions, such as antibiotic resistance .

Eukaryotic cells :

Eukaryotic cells Plants, animals, fungi, slime moulds, protozoa, & algae are all Eukaryotic . These cells are about 15 times wider than a typical prokaryote and can be as much as 1000 times greater in volume. The major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place.

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Most important among these is a cell nucleus , a membrane-delineated compartment that houses the eukaryotic cell's DNA.

Eukaryotic cell:

Eukaryotic cell Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Free ribosome Mitochondria Cell membrane Nucleus Cell wall

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Other differences include: The plasma membrane resembles that of prokaryotes in function, with minor differences in the setup. Cell walls may or may not be present. The eukaryotic DNA is organized in one or more linear molecules, called chromosomes , which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus , separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Some eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria also contain some DNA.

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Eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella . The flagella are more complex than those of prokaryotes. Flagella or cilia

Comparison of features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells :

Comparison of features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Typical organisms bacteria, blue green algae fungi, plants, animals Type of nucleus nucleoid region; no real nucleus real nucleus with double membrane DNA circular (usually) linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone proteins

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Cytoplasmatic structure very few structures highly structured by endomembranes and a cytoskeleton Mitochondria none one to several thousand (though some lack mitochondria) Chloroplasts none in algae and plants Organization usually single cells single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms with specialized cells

Cell structure:

Cell structure Cell nucleus- The cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell's chromosomes , and is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis ( transcription ) occur. The nucleus is spherical and separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope .

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The nuclear envelope isolates and protects a cell's DNA from various molecules that could accidentally damage its structure or interfere with its processing. During processing, DNA (deoxyribonucliec acid) is copied into a special RNA (ribonucliec acid), called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA is then transported out of the nucleus, where it is translated into a specific protein molecule. The nucleolus is a specialized region within the nucleus where ribosome subunits are assembled. In prokaryotes, DNA processing takes place in the cytoplasm .

Cell nucleus :

Cell nucleus Nucleolus

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts:

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are present in eukaryotes only. Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell.

Chloroplasts :


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Mitochondria multiply by splitting in two. Respiration occurs in the cell mitochondria. Organelles that are modified chloroplasts are broadly called plastids , and are involved in energy storage through photosynthesis , which uses solar energy to generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

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Mitochondria and chloroplasts each contain their own genome, which is separate and distinct from the nuclear genome of a cell. Both organelles contain this DNA in circular plasmids. Since these organelles contain their own genomes and have other similarities to prokaryotes, they are thought to have developed through a symbiotic relationship after being engulfed by a primitive cell.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) :

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Endoplasmic reticulum is present in eukaryotes only.  The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm.

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The ER has two forms: the rough ER, which has ribosomes on its surface and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm, and the smooth ER, which lacks them. Smooth ER plays a role in calcium sequestration and release.

Ribosomes :

Ribosomes The ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. They each consist of two subunits, and act as an assembly line where RNA from the nucleus is used to synthesize proteins from amino acids. Ribosomes can be found

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either floating freely or bound to a membrane (the rough endoplasmatic reticulum in eukaryotes, or the cell membrane in prokaryotes).

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes :

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Lysosomes and Peroxisomes are present in eukaryotes only. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases ). They digest excess or worn-out organelles , food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria . Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides .

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The cell could not house these destructive enzymes if they were not contained in a membrane-bound system. These organelles are often called a "suicide bag" because of their ability to detonate and destroy the cell.

Vacuoles :

Vacuoles Vacuoles store food and waste. Some vacuoles store extra water. They are often described as liquid filled space and are surrounded by a membrane. Some cells, most notably Amoeba , have contractile vacuoles, which can pump water out of the cell if there is too much water. The vacuoles of eukaryotic cells are usually larger in those of plants than animals.

Flagella :

Flagella Flagella are the organelles of cellular mobility. They arise from cytoplasm and extrude through the cell wall. They are long and thick thread-like appendages, protein in nature. Are most commonly found in bacteria cells but are found in animal cells as well.

Fimbriae (pili) :

Fimbriae (pili) They are short and thin hair like filaments, formed of protein called pilin. Fimbriae are responsible for attachment of bacteria to specific receptors of human cell. There are special types of pili involved in conjunction.

Fimbriae (pili) :

Fimbriae (pili)

Golgi apparatus:

Golgi apparatus The golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1897 by the italian physician Camillo Golgi, after whom golgi apparatus is named. process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids (fats) that are synthesized by the cell.

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It is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion . The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells.

Cytoskeleton :

Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosis , the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis , the separation of daughter cells after cell division ; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility.

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There is a great number of proteins associated with them, each controlling a cell's structure by directing, bundling, and aligning filaments. The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is less well-studied but is involved in the maintenance of cell shape and cytokinesis.

Functions :

Functions Growth and metabolism Creation Protein synthesis Movement or motility

Growth and metabolism :

Growth and metabolism Between successive cell divisions, cells grow through the functioning of cellular metabolism. Cell metabolism is the process by which individual cells process nutrient molecules.

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Metabolism has two distinct divisions: catabolism , in which the cell breaks down complex molecules to produce energy and reducing power, and anabolism , in which the cell uses energy and reducing power to construct complex molecules and perform other biological functions. Complex sugars consumed by the organism can be broken down into a less chemically complex sugar molecule called glucose . Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ), a form of energy, through two different pathways.

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The first pathway, glycolysis , requires no oxygen and is referred to as anaerobic metabolism . Each reaction is designed to produce some hydrogen ions that can then be used to make energy packets (ATP). In prokaryotes, glycolysis is the only method used for converting energy. The second pathway, called the Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle , occurs inside the mitochondria and can generate enough ATP to run all the cell functions.

Creation :

Creation Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell ) dividing into two daughter cells. This leads to growth in multicellular organisms (the growth of tissue ) and to procreation ( vegetative reproduction ) in unicellular organisms .

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Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission . Eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called mitosis , followed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis . A diploid cell may also undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells, usually four. Haploid cells serve as gametes in multicellular organisms, fusing to form new diploid cells.

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DNA replication , or the process of duplicating a cell's genome, is required every time a cell divides. Replication, like all cellular activities, requires specialized proteins for carrying out the job.

Protein synthesis :

Protein synthesis Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and maintenance of cellular activities. This process involves the formation of new protein molecules from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in DNA/RNA. Protein synthesis generally consists of two major steps: transcription and translation .

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Transcription is the process where genetic information in DNA is used to produce a complementary RNA strand. This RNA strand is then processed to give messenger RNA (mRNA), which is free to migrate through the cell. mRNA molecules bind to protein-RNA complexes called ribosomes located in the cytosol.

Movement or motility :

Movement or motility Cells can move during many processes: such as wound healing, the immune response and cancer metastasis . For wound healing to occur, white blood cells and cells that ingest bacteria move to the wound site to kill the microorganisms that cause infection. At the same time fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) move there to remodel damaged structures.

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In the case of tumor development, cells from a primary tumor move away and spread to other parts of the body. Cell motility involves many receptors, cross linking, bundling, binding, adhesion, motor and other proteins.

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The process is divided into three steps – protrusion of the leading edge of the cell, adhesion of the leading edge and de-adhesion at the cell body and rear, and cytoskeletal contraction to pull the cell forward. Each step is driven by physical forces generated by unique segments of the cytoskeleton .

Presented by - Anushka Ninama Class- VIIIth :

Presented by - Anushka Ninama Class- VIII th

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