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Premium member Presentation Transcript COMMUNICATION SKILLS: COMMUNICATION SKILLSCommunication can be defined as:: Communication can be defined as: A process of sharing facts, ideas, opinions, thoughts and information through speech, writing, gestures or symbols between two or more personsCommunication process: Communication process Sender- the person who sends the message. Also known as the source. Receiver- the person who receives the message. Message – subject matter of communication. It may contain facts, ideas, feelings or thoughts. Feedback- receiver’s response or reaction or reply to the message, which is directly towards the sender. SENDER RECEIVER MESSAGE FEEDBACKMeans of communication:: Means of communication: For sending the message to the receiver or getting the feedback from the receiver, we need a medium, which is called as a medium or means of communication. It carries the message to the receiver and brings the feedback from the receiver. It also depends on the purpose of communication. Examples: - Letters - Telegram - Phones - E-mail - Fax - Tele-conference - Voice mailTypes of communication:: Types of communication: Types of Communication Verbal Non-Verbal Written Visual Aural Gestural OralVerbal Communication: Verbal Communication Verbal communication is made through words, either spoken or written. Communication through spoken words is known as oral communication, which may be in the form of lectures, meetings, group discussions, conferences, telephonic conversations, radio messages etc. In written communication, message is transmitted through written words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, notices, reports, manuals, magazines, handbooks, etc.Non-verbal Communication: Non-verbal Communication Non-verbal communication may be Visual, Aural or Gestural. Sometimes you look into some pictures, graphs, symbols, diagrams etc. and some message is conveyed to you. All these are different forms of visual communication . For example, the traffic policeman showing the stop sign, a teacher showing a chart of different animals, etc. Bells, whistles, buzzers, horns etc. are also the instruments through which we can communicate our message. Communication with the help of these types of sounds is called “aural” communication . For example, the bell used in schools, siren used in factories, etc.Slide 8: Communication through the use of various parts of the human body, or through body language is termed as gestural communication . Examples : saluting our national flag, motionless position during the singing of national anthem, waving of hands, nodding of head, showing anger on face, etc.Communication Barriers: Communication Barriers It is important to recognize the most common communication barriers and understand their negative impact on communication. Frequently, others are not influenced the way we want because we have failed to recognize and deal with communication barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, we must recognize their characteristics and their effects.Communication Barriers: Communication BarriersRelative strength of communication barriers:: Relative strength of communication barriers: The three kinds of communications barriers are Sender-message, physical and listener-receiver. When effective exchange of understanding is not taking place, one or more of these barriers is getting in the way. When a barrier is present in a communication exchange, communication will suffer to some degree. The figure at the right illustrates the strength of the three barriers in relationship to our attempt to identify and reduce them. The figure illustrates that physical barriers are the easiest to identify and reduce or eliminate while the listener barriers are most often the hardest to identify and reduce or eliminate.Slide 12: Acceptance of the responsibility of communication breakdown is quite a different matter. It is difficult to get anyone to admit that they might be the cause of ineffective communication. A sender feels that most communication problems are the fault of the listener or receiver. These people are not anxious to confess that they might be the cause of communication barriers. The same is true with the listeners. A listener feels that most communication problems are a result of sender or message caused communication barriers. They show little interest in accepting responsibility for poor or inadequate communication.Listener Barriers: Listener Barriers These barriers relate to the listeners mind set. Typical mind sets of listeners include not paying attention or daydreaming. The listener generally exhibits resistance toward the sender and/or the message. Examples of listener barriers include: 1 . Listener jumps to conclusions. 2 . Listeners tend to see and hear what they want to see and hear. This usually means they listen to that which seems to agree with their own preconceived ideas. 3 . Listeners tend to reject any message that contradicts their beliefs and assumptions. 4 . Listeners may have emotional problems that cause their minds to be preoccupied. 5 . Listeners do not ask questions to clarify when they do not understand a point. They tend to fill in with their own ideas. 6 . Listeners may nod their heads in agreement when they actually do not agree or are not sure that they agree.Slide 14: However, it also may due to these reasons: - Sender may not discover listener resistance. - Sender may be aware of listener resistance, but not know what to do about it. - Sender may dislike or be disliked by the receiver. - Sender may be aware of their resistance and not want to do anything about it. - Listener feels resistance and does not understand why.Sender-message Barriers: Sender-message Barriers These barriers generally relate to style and content of communication, both of which originate with the sender. Examples of sender barriers include: 1. Sender has not decided or specified precisely what listener response is expected. 2. Sender incorrectly assumes the listener has adequate knowledge to understand the message. 3. Sender uses words and examples unfamiliar to the listener. 4. Sender continues talking when the listener?s attention has been distracted (i.e. noise, uncomfortably cold or hot, other people, dangerous objects, etc.). 5. The sender may say the message in a way that turns of the listener or may even antagonize the listener to cause a totally different message to come through than the one intended. 6. The 500 most commonly used words in the English language have 14,070 dictionary meanings. They mean different things to different people.Slide 16: 7. More words are used than are necessary to convey the message, which forces the listener to make conclusions about which words carry the real meaning of the message. 8. More than one issue is included in a single message, which confuses the listener. 9. Illustrations or examples used may not be appropriate to get the point across to the listener. 10. The sender may intentionally beat around the bush and never get to the point of the communication.Slide 17: Oftentimes, there is a reluctance to deal with (overcome) this kind of barrier for the following reasons: - Sender may not be aware of the barrier’s existence. - Sender, in a supervisory position, may feel that the receiver is responsible for understanding. - Senders may be aware of their existence, but not know what to do about it. - Senders may be aware of their existence, but feel that the urgency is too great to spend sufficient time to overcome it. - Receivers may not be aware of their existence. - Receiver may realize that a message is unclear or that the method or style of presentation is causing the barrier, but hesitates to take a risk and mention it to the sender.Physical Barriers: Physical Barriers These barriers usually relate to environmental factors that affect communication. In relation to the sender or the receiver of the communication, these barriers are neutral. They are not originated by the sender or the receiver. Common examples include: 1. Noise may make hearing difficult. 2. Listener hearing loss. 3. The temperature is uncomfortably cold or hot. 4. The communication may be taking place where there is danger. 5. Distracting activities may be going on nearby.Slide 19: Physical or environmental barriers most often begin at the start of the communication exchange. They are usually fairly obvious and because they are neutral, there is not risk to anyone’s ego for either the sender or receiver to mention physical barriers when they exist. It usually is a very simple matter to overcome them once they are acknowledged. Even though physical barriers are neutral, and even though listeners commonly initiate action to overcome them, it is the sender’s responsibility to achieve understanding. It is, therefore, the sender’s responsibility to initiate action to overcome physical barriers to achieve commitment from the listener to respond as expected.Slide 20: THE END You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.