Unmanned Aerial Systems

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ISM 5021 Spring 2012 - Group 14

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Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS):

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) The Un-man in the front lines Group 14 Amanda Bolyard Anthony Ciamillo Frederick Carter Johnson Don Smith Ryan Townshend

What is a UAS?:

What is a UAS? U = Unmanned A = Aircraft S = System D efined as powered aerial vehicles sustained in flight by aerodynamic lift over most of their flight path and guided without an onboard crew

U.A.S (Clarified):

U.A.S (Clarified ) Is this Smart missile considered a U.A.S/U.A.V ? U.A.S are not the weapon, they are a medium to deliver the weapon NO !

Unmanned?! Who’s driving?:

Unmanned?! Who’s driving? These guys And this guy

A Brief History:

A Brief H istory WW II is when the first modern UAS appeared Idea as old as the Civil War Vietnam was one of the first conflicts that had widespread use of UAS

UAS rise to Popularity:

UAS rise to Popularity “we let the drone do the high-risk flying ... the loss rate is high, but we are willing to risk more of them ... they save lives! “…General John Meyer “The only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don't want to needlessly expend the man in the cockpit” …General George S. Brown UAS can go above and beyond what a pilot can do No signs of slowing down

Components of Unmanned Aerial Systems:

Components of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Common Airframes In Use:

Common Airframes In Use MQ-9 Reaper (Hunter Killer) Used for surveillance and hunter/killer role 66 ft wingspan Honeywell Turbo-Prop Engine 950hp Max speed 300mph 50k ft operational altitude; 3200nm range RQ-4 Global Hawk (ISR-Intel, Surveillance, Recon) Provides persistent real time coverage for imagery (IMINT) and signals (SIGINT) Rolls Royce turbofan engine 7k lbf thrust 131 ft wingspan Max speed 497 mph 65k ft ceiling; 14000 nm range

Payload/Sensor Suites:

Payload/Sensor Suites Optical/Infrared Imager Signals Intel (SIGINT) Package Collects data across designated frequency range Detects, identifies, and locates radar threat emitters and communications signals Data transfer up to 50Mbit/s to a ground station or spacecraft Synthetic aperture radar Operates in X-Band (8-12 GHz) on Global Hawk Provides 6m resolution in strip mode over 23 miles at a range of 12 to 68 miles Provides 6 ft resolution in spot mode

Synthetic Aperture Radar:

Synthetic Aperture Radar Basics Utilizes flight path to simulate extremely large antenna After a number of cycles, data is recombined This creates a high resolution image of terrain Benefits over optical/infrared imaging Recon, Surveillance, Targeting Electromagnetic waves “see” through weather Waves can penetrate foliage Capability to detect underground targets Bunkers, ammo cache, power lines, tunnels etc Hangars at Kirtland AFB with SAR, 1m res (sandia.gov) Same Hangars from Google Maps

Support Components:

Support Components Remote Pilot Ground Control Station Tx /Rx Antenna Communications Spacecraft

UAS Data Link:

UAS Data Link Pilot sits in Ground Control Station (GCS) Can be located anywhere in the world If line of sight exists, data is streamed directly to GCS from drone If line of sight does not exist, a satellite relay is utilized Spacecraft allow a pilot in Nevada to control drone over Afghanistan Global Hawk can transmit and receive data up to 50 Mbps. The average broadband internet speed in the US is 5.1 Mbps.

Engineering Considerations:

Engineering Considerations No human limiting factors Size of fuel tanks is the limit to mission duration (unlimited if refueled) Force constraints become that of the material (Aluminum, composite material strength) Can maintain real time, near continuous situational awareness of battlefield Requires data connection between ground control station and vehicle Delay in signal (like a reporter that is on the other side of the world, data can only travel up to the speed of light)

Current and Future Uses of Unmanned Aerial Systems:

Current and Future Uses of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Primary Current Uses:

Primary Current Uses Six Functional Categories for UAVs: Target and decoy Information gathering Combat Logistics Research and development Civil and commercial

PowerPoint Presentation:

Current Military Uses Significant increase in UAV usage by military forces around the globe. Most prevalent role of UAVs in the military: Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) Air Strikes using missiles and bombs Over 40 countries currently possess or are developing UAVs, including: The U.S. China Iran Great Britain Israel

Current Civilian Uses:

Current Civilian Uses Although used primarily by military forces, UAVs are becoming increasingly popular for civilian applications Examples Include Law enforcement Commercial endeavors Development by hobbyist

UASs in Law Enforcement :

UASs in Law Enforcement Largest non-military users of UAVs are law enforcement agencies UAV’s primary function in this field is based on information gathering and includes Target surveillance Suspect interdiction Area monitoring

Commercial Uses:

Commercial Uses FAA currently restricts flying UAVs into national airspace but their utilization for commercial purposes is gradually increasing. Current users Environmental activis m Oil and gas companies Farmers and ranchers Scientists Disaster response teams

Hobbyist Uses:

Hobbyist Uses Similar to the at-home development of personal computers during the ‘60s and ‘70s, there are a growing number of UAV hobbyist in the United States Several off-the-shelf model kits are currently available A private, Arizona-based anti- immigration group utilized a $25k model for its own border patrol activities.

UAVs, Criminals, and Terrorist:

UAVs, Criminals, and Terrorist As with most developing technologies, UAVs are potential assets for criminals and terrorists Possible uses include: Drug smuggling Terrorist Attacks Unconventional payloads Recent examples of illicit activity include UAV utilization by Hezbollah, Iraqi insurgent groups, and domestic terrorists

Future Uses:

Future Uses UAV technology is advancing rapidly, resulting in faster, stronger, and more complex platforms Primary goal is greater autonomy and “smart” UAVs Areas of improvement include Sensor Fusion Communications Path Planning Cooperative Tactics Future uses of UAVs include: Long Range Bomber Unmanned Air Superiority Cargo Transport Expanded civilian use with FAA rules regarding National Airspace

Impact on the Battlefield:

Impact on the Battlefield Used both to support troops on the ground and to build knowledge at the strategic level Data link capability can give troops “eyes in the sky” Voice communications with operators used to request close air support Cameras, radars, and other sensors provide vital intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance to high-level commanders

Anwar al-Awlaki killed in Yemen:

Anwar al- Awlaki killed in Yemen Killed by CIA drone. Demonstrates capabilities of UASs as well as typical tactical employment

UAS use in Afghanistan:

UAS use in Afghanistan 161 Predators owned by US military Used in constant airborne surveillance role Continuously monitoring enemy movements and suspicious activity Heavily relied upon by ground troops for air cover

UAS Use on the Home Front:

UAS Use on the Home Front 9 Predators owned by Customs and Border Patrol Local Sheriffs, Law Enforcement employment Civilian groups interested FAA Ban to be lifted by 2015 ACLU expressing concerns of “Surveillance State”

Economic Impact:

Economic Impact

Federal Budget Cuts:

Federal Budget Cuts January 2012 – Pentagon proposed major cuts to the Department of Defense budget Agreed to cut the budget by $487 million over the next decade One notable exception to the cuts ……UASs

Unforeseen Challenges:

Unforeseen Challenges Costs of the Global Hawk Program $3 billion surveillance drones shelved

MQ9 Reaper Drone:

MQ9 Reaper Drone Estimated Cost: $4-$5 million Actual cost: $120.8 million MQ9 Reaper Drone

Conclusion:

Conclusion UAS’s provide a tremendous amount of real time information They have been proven effective on the battlefield and for commercial/civilian use These systems are expensive to acquire/maintain The future of UAS’s depend on the answer to the question “How Much Is a Human Life Worth?”

References:

References http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=6405 http://science.howstuffworks.com/reaper4.htm http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=13225 http://www.aviationweek.com/media/pdf/UnmannedHorizons/DOTE2011GlobalHawkB_LRIP_Report.pdf http://connectedplanetonline.com/residential_services/news/Akamai-Average-US-broadband-connection-speed-passes-5-Mbs-0426/ www.sandia.gov http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/pentagon-cuts-to-hit-defense-industry/2012/01/25/gIQAow5NTQ_story.html http ://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/global-hawk-air-force-shelves-3b-worth-unmanned/story?id=15828636 http ://news.yahoo.com/shelved-drones-example-government-waste-213000731.html http ://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/28/drone-war-costs-air-force-budget_n_1307827.html

References (cont):

References (cont) http://www.theamericaspostes.com/3988/us-border-patrol-deploying-sixth-predator-drone / (Border Patrol Photo) http:// www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/05/us-usa-military-obama-idUSTRE8031Z020120105 http:// www.cnbc.com/id/45613842/Downed_US_Drone_to_Impact_Military_Spending_Allocations http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/01/drone-report / http:// www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/3846138/Terror-chief-al-Awlaki-killed-in-Yemen-air-strike.html http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/02/26/police-border-patrol-other-agencies-looking-to-expand-drone-use-at-home / http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal104/uav.cfm http://www.list.ufl.edu/uav/UAVHstry.htm http://www-rucker.army.mil/usaace/uas/US%20Army%20UAS%20RoadMap%202010%202035.pdf http://www.military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,159220,00.html http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA452037 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/spiesfly/uavs.html

References (cont):

References (cont) [1] Macintyre, Ben. “Look Up. There’s a Drone Watching Over You.” The Times (London, England). January 3, 2012. p17. http://go.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE|A276184871&v=2.1&u=tall85761&it=r&p=AO`NE&sw=w&authCount=1 [2] Turan , Mustafa and Ferhat Gunay and Adil Aslan . “An Analytical Approach to the Concept of Counter-UA Operations (CUAOPS).” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems. Volume 65, Numbers 1-4, 73-91. http://www.springerlink.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/content/486659068m677270/ [3] Kurkcu , Coskun and Haluk Erhan and Saban Umut . “Human Factors Concerning Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Future Operations.” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems. Volume 65, Numbers 1-4, 63-72. http://www.springerlink.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/content/p4mm7tjh4275g523/ [4] Geiger, Harley. “The Drones are Coming.” Center for Democracy and Technology. December 21, 2011. https://www.cdt.org/blogs/harley-geiger/2112drones-are-coming [5] Schneiderman , Ron. “Unmanned Drones are Flying High in the Military/Aerospace Sector.” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. January 11, 2012. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6105461&tag=1 [6] Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle [7] Hagerman, Eric. “The Present and Future of Unmanned Drone Aircraft.” Popsci.com. February 23, 2010. http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-02/field-guide-flying-robots

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