A Look Artificial Eye

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Artificial Eye : 

Artificial Eye By Abhishek Sharma

What is Artificial Eye : 

What is Artificial Eye Do you think modern technology has made life easier and safer? Or do you think that modern technology has made life more difficult and more dangerous?

What is Technology : 

What is Technology Technology deals with the knowledge of human tools and crafts. "Technology" is simply the application of knowledge. Humans from around the world find different ways to increase the efficiency of different technology functions.

The best tech ever seen : 

The best tech ever seen

A Brief History of Artificial Eye : 

5th century BC Aristotle invents syllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system. 16th century AD Rabbi Loew supposedly invents the Golem, an artificial man made out of clay A Brief History of Artificial Eye

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17th century Descartes proposes animals are machines and founds a scientific paradigm that will dominate for 250 years. Pascal creates the first mechanical calculator in 1642 18th century Wolfgang von Kempelen “invents” fake chess-playing machine, The Turk.

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19th century George Boole creates a binary algebra to represent “laws of thought” Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace develop sophisticated programmable mechanical computers, precursor to modern electronic computers.

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20th century Karel Kapek writes “Rossum’s Universal Robots”, coining the English word “robot” Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts lay partial groundwork for neural networks Turing writes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” – proposal of Turing test

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1956: John McCarthy coins phrase “artificial intelligence” 1952-62: Arthur Samuel writes the first AI game program to challenge a world champion, in part due to learning. 1950’s-60’s: Masterman et. al at Cambridge create semantic nets that do machine translation.

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1961: James Slagle writes first symbolic integrator, SAINT, to solve calculus problems. 1963: Thomas Evan’s writes ANALOGY, which solves analogy problems like the ones on IQ tests. 1965: J. A. Robinson invents Resolution Method using formal logic as its representation language.

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1965: Joseph Weizenbaum creates ELIZA, one of the earliest “chatterbots” 1967: Feigenbaum et. al create Dendral, the first useful knowledge-based agent that interpreted mass spectrographs. 1969: Shakey the robot combines movement, perception and problem solving.

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1971: Terry Winograd demonstrates a program that can understand English commands in the word of blocks. 1972: Alain Colmerauer writes Prolog 1974: Ted Shortliffe creates MYCIN, the first expert system which showed the effectiveness of rule-based knowledge representation for medical diagnosis.

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1978: Herb Simon wins Nobel Prize for theory of bounded rationality 1983: James Allen creates Interval Calculus as a formal representation for events in time. 1980’s: Backpropagation (invented 1974) rediscovered and sees wide use in neural networks

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1985: ALVINN, “an autonomous land vehicle in a neural network” navigates across the country (2800 miles). Early 1990’s: Gerry Tesauro creates TD-Gammon, a learning backgammon agent that vies with championship players 1997: Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov

Modern Times (post-Cartesian) : 

Modern Times (post-Cartesian) Robopets Widespread viruses, security holes aplenty AI-powered CRM Faster—and many more—computers

ADVANTAGES (Factual Changes) : 

ADVANTAGES (Factual Changes) Smarter artificial intelligence promises to replace human jobs, freeing people for other pursuits by automating manufacturing and transportations. Self-modifying, self-writing, and learning software relieves programmers of the burdensome task of specifying the whole of a program’s functionality—now we can just create the framework and have the program itself fill in the rest (example: real-time strategy game artificial intelligence run by a neural network that acts based on experience instead of an explicit decision tree). Self-replicating applications can make deployment easier and less resource-intensive. AI can see relationships in enormous or diverse bodies of data that a human could not

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Disadvantages (Risks) Potential for malevolent programs, “cold war” between two countries, unforeseen impacts because it is complex technology, environmental consequences will most likely be minimal.

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Self-modifying, when combined with self-replicating, can lead to dangerous, unexpected results, such as a new and frequently mutating computer virus. As computers get faster and more numerous, the possibility of randomly creating an artificial intelligence becomes real. Military robots may make it possible for a country to indiscriminately attack less-advanced countries with few, if any, human casualties. Rapid advances in AI could mean massive structural unemployment AI utilizing non-transparent learning (i.e. neural networks) is never completely predictable

The Future? : 

The Future? Idea of Artificial Intelligence is being replaced by Artificial life, or anything with a form or body. The consensus among scientists is that a requirement for life is that it has an embodiment in some physical form, but this will change. Programs may not fit this requirement for life yet.

Should we start caring yet? : 

Should we start caring yet? Very sophisticated—perhaps even sentient—AI may not be far off; with sufficient computation power (such as that offered by quantum computers) it is possible to “evolve” AI without much programming effort. Today, concerns include mutating viruses and the reliability of AI (you don’t want software directing your car into a tree).

What should happen? : 

What should happen? When programs that appear to demonstrate sentience appear (intelligence and awareness), a panel of scientists could be assembled to determine if a particular program is sentient or not. If sentient, it will be given rights, so, in general, companies will try to avoid developing sentient AI since they would not be able to indiscriminately exploit it. Software companies should be made legally responsible for failings of software that result in damage to third parties despite good-faith attempts at control by the user. AI and robotics have the potentially to truly revolutionize the economy by replacing labor with capital, allowing greater production—it deserves a corresponding share of research funding!

And what is going to happen… : 

And what is going to happen… Most people are willing to torture and kill intelligent animals like cows just for a tastier lunch—why would they hesitate to exploit artificial life? This is further compounded mainstream religious beliefs Even with laws, any individual with sufficient computing power could “evolve” AI without much programming. Licensing agreements will continue to allow careless companies to often escape responsibility for faulty software. Bottom line: ethical considerations will be ignored; reform—if it happens—will only take place when the economic costs become too high.

Effects of technology on Environment? : 

Effects of technology on Environment?

Thank You : 

Thank You