management information system

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CHAPTER 1

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Management Information System (MIS)

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Definition It’s a computer-based system that makes information available to the users with similar needs.The users usually comprise of an organizational entity. The information describes the firm or one of the major systems in terms of what has happened in past, what is happening now and what is likely to happen in the future. The information is made available in the form of periodic reports, special reports and outputs of mathematical simulations. The information output is used by both managers and non managers as they make decisions to solve the firm’s problems. Management Information System (MIS)

A view of MIS model (fig.1.1) : 

A view of MIS model (fig.1.1) Data Base Report writing software Mathematical models Organizational problem solver Management Information System Environment Data Information

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The database contains the data provided by the Accounting Information System. In addition, both data and information are entered from the environment. The database contents are used by software that produces periodic and special reports and its used by the mathematical models that simulate various aspects of the firm’s operations. The software’s output are used by persons who are responsible for solving the firm’s problems. The MIS Model

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MIS Softwares

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The report writing software consists of programs that produce both periodic reports and special reports Periodic reports are prepared according to a certain schedule. The information is gathered in specific schedule from the sources through which assessment can be done, for example, feedback about sales from customers. Special reports are prepared from those events which are special in some nature. A special report can describe some event that is still happening or just happened, and also it can address a topic that is of a particular interest to the user at the present time, for example, an accident report. Report Writing Software (MIS software #1)

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It’s a method of improving the contents of both periodic and special reports. Its also called Management by Exception and it can be done in the following ways. Prepare the report only when Exceptions occur. Here all the entries are a result of an exception condition. An example is the overtime earning report of employees. Highlighting Exceptions by maintaining a certain sequence. One of the most popular way is to sequence the entries in the report in ascending or descending manner based on one or more key fields. A particular record in this type of arrangement is easy to find. Grouping the Exceptions together. The exceptions of special interest for the manager can be grouped and highlighted for quick attention. For example, a report containing the records about immediate cash payments group and cash receivables group, so if they are grouped separately then the manager can scan them for highest amounts in both the groups. By showing Variance from normal. Here the records contain the details of the comparison of the actual activity with the planned activity. For example, a sales analysis report. Including Exceptions into Reports

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Modeling is a management skill for managers, using various models to represent various events or to predict certain happening. A model is an abstraction of something, it represents some phenomenon i.e. an Object or an Activity, and this phenomenon is called an entity. For example, if a model represents a firm then the firm is an entity, or if it represents a fluctuation in the firm’s sales volume then the sales volume becomes an entity. Modeling

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There are four types of models Physical, Narrative, Graphic and mathematical. The Physical model is that exists in a three dimensional form, usually smaller than the real entity. For example, a clay model of a building. The Narrative model is created by verbal or written description. And as these can be created any where with out much resources hence they are most popular. The Graphic model is diagram usually two dimensional which make extensive use of graphical entities like graphs and charts. The Mathematical model are created using mathematical formulas where the symbols used in the formula represent parts of a phenomenon. A mathematical model can be classified in to three dimensions – the Influence of Time, the Degree of Certainty, ability to achieve Optimization. Types of Models used in Management

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Types of Models used in Management Model Physical model Narrative model Graphic model Mathematical model Influence of time Ability to achieve Optimization Degree of certainity

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Mathematical Modeling (MIS software #2) Mathematical model Influence of time Ability to achieve Optimization Degree of certainity Static or Dynamic models Optimizing or Suboptimizing models Probabilistic or Deterministic models

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Static or Dynamic models Static models do not include time as one of its variables. Its like an instance or a snap shot of an event. Dynamic models include time as a variable. They represent the behavior of an entity over time, like a motion picture. Probabilistic or Deterministic models Probabilistic models include the element of probability i.e. the chance that a particular thing will happen. Probabilities vary from 0.00 (for no chance) to 1.00 (for sure chance). Deterministic models only include those factors which are not probable but certain. Optimizing or Sub optimizing models Optimizing models require that the problem that is given to them is well structured as they generate the best possible solution among the available alternatives. Sub optimizing models or satisficing models can not ensure best alternative solution but it gives output when the manager enters a set of decisions. Its up to the manager to identify the best decision.

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The human factor consideration include the factors that can effect the performance of the employees during their computer related tasks (in this case). Apart from other factors the Fear factor is the major issue in this case. For example, the biggest fear among the employees is the fear of losing their jobs due to automation by computers. A program to minimize the fear factor Using computers for Job Enhancement. Here the computers are put to do the redundant and boring jobs and giving the employees challenging jobs. This will create a sense among the employees that they are very much required for the company. Using Formal Communication to keep the employees informed about the intentions of the company. Which creates clear idea in the employees mind and is not carried out by false propaganda. Building Trust between Employees, Information Specialists and Management. This can be done by involving all of them in projects with proper formal communication. Align the Employee’s Needs with the objectives of the firm. Here the identification of employee needs is done and then motivate the employees to work for the firm in order to fulfill the employee’s needs. MIS and Human Factors

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There are two basic ways through which problems can be solved using MIS. Organizational wise Information Resources. The MIS provides problem-solving information that is created by the efforts of the entire organization. The MIS incorporates Decision Support Systems, Virtual Office and Knowledge-based Systems for the entire organization. 2. Problem Identification and Understanding. The MIS keeps a continuous supply of information to the managers. The managers use MIS for primary identification of problems and possible solutions. It helps the managers to pinpoint the location of problems and causes. Problem Solving using MIS

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Explain MIS What is stored in the MIS database? Where do its contents come from? Explain the two types of MIS software. Explain various types of reports. What is a report writing software, explain. Explain the ways to incorporate management by exception into the reports. Explain the fear factor and methods to eradicate them in an organization using computers. How does MIS supports problem solving, explain? What are the weaknesses of MIS? Assignment #1